The Second Bush Era: 20002008
George W. Bush, son of George H. W. Bush, won the 2000 Republican presidential nomination over Arizona Senator John McCain, former Senator Elizabeth Dole and others. With his highly controversial and exceedingly narrow victory in the 2000 election against the Vice President Al Gore, the Republican Party gained control of the Presidency and both houses of Congress for the first time since 1952. However, it lost control of the Senate when Vermont Senator James Jeffords left the Republican Party to become an independent in 2001 and caucused with the Democrats.
In the wake of the September 11 attacks on the United States in 2001, Bush gained widespread political support as he pursued the War on Terrorism that included the invasion of Afghanistan and the invasion of Iraq. In March 2003, Bush ordered for an invasion of Iraq because of breakdown of United Nations sanctions and intelligence indicating programs to rebuild or develop new weapons of mass destruction. Bush had near-unanimous Republican support in Congress plus support from many Democratic leaders.
Bush failed to win conservative approval for Harriet Miers to the Supreme Court, replacing her with Samuel Alito, whom the Senate confirmed in January 2006. Bush and McCain secured additional tax cuts and blocked moves to raise taxes. Through 2006, they strongly defended his policy in Iraq, saying the was winning. They secured the renewal of the USA PATRIOT Act.
What Is A Federalism
Federalism is a system of government in which the same territory is controlled by two levels of government. Generally, an overarching national government is responsible for broader governance of larger territorial areas, while the smaller subdivisions, states, and cities govern the issues of local concern.
Fighting The New Deal Coalition: 19321980
Historian George H. Nash argues:
Unlike the “moderate,” internationalist, largely eastern bloc of Republicans who accepted some of the “Roosevelt Revolution” and the essential premises of President Truman’s foreign policy, the Republican Right at heart was counterrevolutionary. Anticollectivist, anti-Communist, anti-New Deal, passionately committed to limited government, free market economics, and congressional prerogatives, the G.O.P. conservatives were obliged from the start to wage a constant two-front war: against liberal Democrats from without and “me-too” Republicans from within.
The Old Right emerged in opposition to the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Hoff says that “moderate Republicans and leftover Republican Progressives like Hoover composed the bulk of the Old Right by 1940, with a sprinkling of former members of the Farmer-Labor party, Non-Partisan League, and even a few midwestern prairie Socialists.”
Era Of Good Feelings 18171825
Monroe believed that the existence of political parties was harmful to the United States, and he sought to usher in the end of the Federalist Party by avoiding divisive policies and welcoming ex-Federalists into the fold. Monroe favored infrastructure projects to promote economic development and, despite some constitutional concerns, signed bills providing federal funding for the National Road and other projects. Partly due to the mismanagement of national bank president William Jones, the country experienced a prolonged economic recession known as the Panic of 1819. The panic engendered a widespread resentment of the national bank and a distrust of paper money that would influence national politics long after the recession ended. Despite the ongoing economic troubles, the Federalists failed to field a serious challenger to Monroe in the 1820 presidential election, and Monroe won re-election essentially unopposed.
Patterns Of Candidate Support 2004
The general election is still a year away, but already it is clear that many of the patterns of candidate support evident in the last election are likely to persist. Yet there also are some striking differences, aside from the larger gender gap, between a hypothetical Giuliani-Clinton matchup and the 2004 presidential election.
Among white mainline Protestants and white non-Hispanic Catholics, Giuliani fares about as well as George Bush did in 2004. However, while Giuliani draws support from two-thirds of white evangelical Protestants , Bush did significantly better among white evangelical voters , according to the exit polls conducted by the National Election Pool .
In addition, voters who attend religious services once a week or more divide fairly evenly between Giuliani and Clinton . In 2004, regular church-goers supported Bush over John Kerry by 61%-39%.
Clinton runs ahead of Kerry in most income and education categories. Voters with some college — those who have attended college but have not gotten a degree — favored Bush by an eight-point margin in 2004. But voters in this group favor Clinton over Giuliani by 53%-47% in the current survey.
Issues For Which Location Does Not Matter
Despite the spectrum of people and lifestyles across California, there are some issues where opinion is roughly similar everywhere. Many of these issues touch on the general role of government: its size and scope. At least a majority—but never more than two-thirds—in every place in the state believes taxes are too high . More politically liberal places like San Francisco or the East Bay are the least aggrieved, but the difference is small. Likewise, 42 percent think the budget situation is a big problem but the number falls in a relatively narrow range of between 40 and 58 percent in all but 11 of our places.
What Were The Federalist Papers Arguing For Hoping To Achieve
What the Federalist Papers Said. In the Federalist Papers, Hamilton, Jay and Madison argued that the decentralization of power that existed under the Articles of Confederation prevented the new nation from becoming strong enough to compete on the world stage, or to quell internal insurrections such as Shays’s Rebellion …
Regional State And Local Politics
The Republicans welcomed the Progressive Era at the state and local level. The first important reform mayor was of , who was elected Governor of Michigan in 1896. In New York City, the Republicans joined nonpartisan reformers to battle Tammany Hall and elected Seth Low . Golden Rule Jones was first elected mayor of as a Republican in 1897, but was reelected as an independent when his party refused to renominate him. Many Republican civic leaders, following the example of Mark Hanna, were active in the National Civic Federation, which promoted urban reforms and sought to avoid wasteful strikes. North Carolina journalist William Garrott Brown tried to convince upscale white southerners of the wisdom of a strong early white Republican Party. He warned that a one party solid South system would negate democracy, encourage corruption, because the lack of prestige of the national level. Roosevelt was following his advice. However, in 1912, incumbent president Taft needed black Republican support in the South to defeat Roosevelt at the 1912 Republican national convention. Brown’s campaign came to nothing, and he finally supported Woodrow Wilson in 1912.
Who Supported A Weaker Central Government
Many Anti-Federalists preferred a weak central government because they equated a strong government with British tyranny. Others wanted to encourage democracy and feared a strong government that would be dominated by the wealthy. They felt that the states were giving up too much power to the new federal government.
Jefferson Experiences The Political Limits Of Freedom Of The Press
President Jefferson’s support for freedom of the press was sorely tested in 1802 when James Callender publicly charged that Jefferson “keeps and for many years has kept, as his concubine, one of his slaves. Her name is Sally.” The Richmond Recorder, first printed Callender’s account of Jefferson’s intimate relationship with his wife’s half sister, Sally Hemings, but controversy has surrounded the accusation and the relationship to the present day. Callender, whose vitriolic attacks on Federalist opponents of Jefferson in the 1790s had been secretly funded by Jefferson and Republican allies, turned against Jefferson when the president failed to give him a patronage position.
The Richmond Recorder, September 1, 1802. Courtesy of the Virginia State Library, Richmond
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Alexander Hamilton And The Bank Of The United States
Originally a coalition of like-minded men, the party became publicly well defined only in 1795. After Washington’s inauguration in 1789, Congress and members of the president’s cabinet debated proposals of Alexander Hamilton, first secretary of the treasury, that the national government assume the debts of the states, repay the national debt at par rather than at its depressed market value, and charter a national bank, the Bank of the United States. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and Congressman James Madison rallied opposition to Hamilton’s plan. Yet not until Congress debated the ratification and implementation of the Jay Treaty with Great Britain did two political parties clearly emerge, with the Federalists under Hamilton’s leadership.
Federalist policies thenceforth emphasized commercial and diplomatic harmony with Britain, domestic order and stability and a strong national government under powerful executive and judicial branches. Washington’s Farewell Address of 1796, prepared with Hamilton’s assistance, can be read as a classic text of partisan Federalism as well as a great state paper.
Maryland Massachusetts Vermont Dc Most Democratic; Wyoming Utah Most Republican
PRINCETON, NJ — Gallup’s analysis of party affiliation in the U.S. states shows a marked decline in the number of solidly Democratic states from 2008 to 2010 . The number of politically competitive states increased over the same period, from 10 to 18, with more limited growth in the number of leaning or solidly Republican states.
Even with Democratic Party affiliation declining during the past two years, Democratic states still outnumbered Republican states by 23 to 10 last year, and there were 14 solidly Democratic states compared with 5 solidly Republican states.
Still, the political map this year looks very different from the Democratic-dominated map in 2008.
|Explore complete state data >
Looking more closely at the changes in state party affiliation since 2008, only one state moved from a Democratic positioning to a Republican positioning — New Hampshire, which was solidly Democratic in 2008 but now is considered leaning Republican. Alabama, Kansas, Montana, and South Dakota moved from a competitive designation to solidly or leaning Republican status. A total of 12 states — Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Louisiana, Maine, Missouri, Nevada, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Virginia, and Wisconsin — shifted from solidly or leaning Democratic to competitive. No states have moved in a more Democratic direction since 2008.
Wyoming, Utah Most Republican; D.C. and Several States Most Democratic
The Providential Detection Depicts Jefferson Attempting To Destroy The Constitution
In this cartoon, Thomas Jefferson kneels before the altar of Gallic despotism as God and an American eagle attempt to prevent him from destroying the United States Constitution. He is depicted as about to fling a document labeled “Constitution & Independence U.S.A.” into the fire fed by the flames of radical writings. Jefferson’s alleged attack on George Washington and John Adams in the form of a letter to Philip Mazzei falls from Jefferson’s pocket. Jefferson is supported by Satan, the writings of Thomas Paine, and the French philosophers.
Artist unknown. The Providential Detection, 1797–1800. Copyprint of lithograph. Courtesy of the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts
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Why Did Thomas Jefferson And Alexander Hamilton Disagree
He thought states should charter banks that could issue money. Jefferson also believed that the Constitution did not give the national government the power to establish a bank. Hamilton disagreed on this point too. The bank became an important political issue in 1791, and for years to come.
Direction Of The Us Economy
Hamilton and the Federalists stressed manufacturing, commerce, finance and overseas trade. They wanted tariffs and business protections.
Jefferson and the Republicans wanted a simple agrarian economy . They favored the yeoman farmer – that means the small farmers of the South, not the big plantation owners. They wanted the government to support the interests of the ‘common man.’Hamilton favored a strong central government, while Jefferson favored the rights of the states
Bill Clintons Possible Return
The public has a mixed reaction to the prospect of Bill Clinton’s return to the White House, should Hillary Clinton win the 2008 election. Nonetheless, most Americans believe that Bill Clinton would have a positive influence on the way Hillary Clinton would do her job if she becomes president.
Fewer than half of Americans say they “like the idea of Bill Clinton being back in the White House;” a third says they dislike that prospect. Republicans are overwhelmingly negative about the prospect of Bill Clinton’s possible return, while Democrats are overwhelmingly positive. Notably, men are much more favorable about Clinton’s possible return to the White House than are women: by 52%-29% men like this idea, while women are divided .
There is greater agreement that the former president would have a positive influence on his wife, if she wins the presidency. Despite the reservations that women express about Bill Clinton “being back in the White House,” nearly as many women as men say Bill Clinton’s influence on a President Hillary Clinton would be positive .
The New Deal Era: 19321939
After Roosevelt took office in 1933, New Deal legislation sailed through Congress at lightning speed. In the 1934 midterm elections, ten Republican senators went down to defeat, leaving them with only 25 against 71 Democrats. The House of Representatives was also split in a similar ratio. The “Second New Deal” was heavily criticized by the Republicans in Congress, who likened it to class warfare and . The volume of legislation, as well as the inability of the Republicans to block it, soon made the opposition to Roosevelt develop into bitterness and sometimes hatred for “that man in the White House.” Former President Hoover became a leading orator crusading against the New Deal, hoping unrealistically to be nominated again for president.
Most major newspaper publishers favored Republican moderate Alf Landon for president. In the nation’s 15 largest cities the newspapers that editorially endorsed Landon represented 70% of the circulation. Roosevelt won 69% of the actual voters in those cities by ignoring the press and using the radio to reach voters directly.
Roosevelt carried 46 of the 48 states thanks to traditional Democrats along with newly energized labor unions, city machines and the Works Progress Administration. The realignment creating the Fifth Party System was firmly in place. Since 1928, the GOP had lost 178 House seats, 40 Senate seats and 19 governorships, though it retained a mere 89 seats in the House and 16 in the Senate.
Who Were The Anti
An individual who opposed the ratification of the new Constitution in 1787. The Anti-Federalists were opposed to a strong central government. It gave too much power to the national government at the expense of the powers of the state governments, it did not include the bill of rights. You just studied 12 terms!
What Are Examples Of Federalism Today
Examples of Federalism Examples include: One strong main, or national government, that has a lot of power, while the individual states have much less power. When a political party believes in a central government that is controlling and is the advocate of a centralized form of government.
The Clinton Years And The Congressional Ascendancy: 19922000
After the of Democratic President Bill Clinton in 1992, the Republican Party, led by House Minority WhipNewt Gingrich campaigning on a “Contract with America“, were elected to majorities to both Houses of Congress in the Republican Revolution of 1994. It was the first time since 1952 that the Republicans secured control of both houses of U.S. Congress, which with the exception of the Senate during 2001–2002 was retained through 2006. This capture and subsequent holding of Congress represented a major legislative turnaround, as Democrats controlled both houses of Congress for the forty years preceding 1995, with the exception of the 1981–1987 Congress in which Republicans controlled the Senate.
In 1994, Republican Congressional candidates ran on a platform of major reforms of government with measures such as a balanced budget amendment and welfare reform. These measures and others formed the famous Contract with America, which represented the first effort to have a party platform in an off-year election. The Contract promised to bring all points up for a vote for the first time in history. The Republicans passed some of their proposals, but failed on others such as term limits.
The Trump Era: 20162020
Businessman Donald Trump won the 2016 Republican primaries, representing a dramatic policy shift from traditional conservatism to an aggressively populist ideology with overtones of cultural identity politics. Numerous high-profile Republicans, including past presidential nominees like Mitt Romney, announced their opposition to Trump; some even did so after he received the GOP nomination. Much of the Republican opposition to Trump stemmed from concerns that his disdain for political correctness, his support from the , his virulent criticism of the mainstream news media, and his expressions of approval for political violence would result in the GOP losing the presidential election and lead to significant GOP losses in other races. In one of the largest upsets in American political history, Trump went on to defeat Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential election.
In addition to electing Donald Trump as president, Republicans maintained a majority in the , in the , and amongst state governors in the 2016 elections. The Republican Party was slated to control 69 of 99 state legislative chambers in 2017 and at least 33 governorships . The party took total control of the government in 25 states following the 2016 elections; this was the most states it had controlled since 1952.
Is It Female Politicians Or Hillary Clinton
The positive associations voters express about ambition, toughness and outspokenness are not limited to Clinton and Giuliani in particular. In a separate survey, voters were asked for their views on these same traits as they apply to male and female political leaders in general. Again, all three are seen in overwhelmingly positive terms, regardless of the gender of the politician. In fact, ambition, toughness and outspokenness carry slightly better connotations when associated with female political leaders than with male political leaders.
But there is a Clinton factor — the terms “ambitious” and “outspoken” carry a slightly more negative connotation when people are thinking about Clinton than when they are thinking about female politicians in general. Overall, 21% of those who see Clinton as ambitious dislike this about her, compared with 16% who dislike this in female political leaders more generally. And 26% of those who see Clinton as outspoken dislike this about her, compared with 16% who dislike this in general. There is no such gap when it comes to Giuliani.
About the same percentage of voters dislikes toughness in female political leaders as say that about Hillary Clinton . Somewhat more voters say they dislike toughness in male political leaders than say they dislike that trait when it is associated with Giuliani .
Figure 10 Majorities Believe Housing Is A Big Problem Along Almost The Entire Coastal Region
NOTES: Question wording is “How much of a problem is housing affordability in your part of California? Is it a big problem, somewhat of a problem, or not a problem?” Shading represents the share of Californians who say it is a big problem. Estimates come from a multilevel regression and poststratification model as described in Technical Appendix A. Full model results can be found in Technical Appendix B.
The country has suffered a string of mass shootings in recent years, which has once again put gun control at the center of political debate. About two-thirds of Californians have supported stricter gun control laws over the past two years of PPIC Statewide Surveys. Figure 11 shows that this strong overall support masks an extremely sharp geographic divide. In the rural places in the far north and east of the state, support for stricter gun laws falls below 40 percent. In most of the remaining rural areas—along the north coast, the southern San Joaquin Valley, and the Mojave Desert, support falls short of a majority. But support is above 70 percent in most of the Bay Area and all of LA County, and it exceeds 80 percent in the three liberal enclaves of central LA, the East Bay, and San Francisco.
Federal Prohibition Of Foreign Importation Of Slaves
In his “Sixth Annual Message to Congress” on December 2, 1806, President Jefferson, at the earliest moment allowed by the Constitution, called on Congress to abolish the importation of slaves from outside the United States. The United States Constitution had forbidden Congress to abolish “the Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit” prior to 1808. Congress readily complied with the president’s request and the importation of slaves was prohibited as of January 1, 1808.
Thomas Jefferson. “Sixth Annual Message to Congress,” December 2, 1806. Manuscript. Manuscript Division
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Figure 6 Unregistered Californians Make Republican Places More Democratic And Democratic Places More Republican
NOTE: The line shows equivalence: points on or near that line represent places where the unregistered have about the same partisan lean as the registered. Points below that line indicate places where the unregistered lean more Republican on average, and points above the line indicate places where the unregistered lean more Democratic on average.
The final partisan topic we examine is presidential approval. Figure 7 maps the difference between Trump approval and disapproval for each of our 46 places. Red areas have more people who approve than disapprove, while blue areas have the opposite.
Which Region In General Supported The Federalists What About The Democratic Republican
The Federalists drew their support from primarily urban areas,while the Democratic Republicans drew support from rural regions.Although there was not a strict geographic divide between theparties, the North would eventually develop more in line withAlexander Hamilton‘s Federalist vision of the nation while the South would follow Thomas Jefferson‘sDemocratic-Republican model .
Would You Have Been A Supported Of The Federals Or The Democratic Republican Party
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Founding Of The Democratic
Jefferson and Madison founded the party in opposition to the Federalist Party, which was led by John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, and John Marshall, who fought for a strong federal government and supporting policies that favored the wealthy. The primary difference between the Democratic-Republican Party and the Federalists was Jefferson’s belief in the authority of local and state governments.
“Jefferson’s party stood for rural agricultural interests urban commercial interests represented by Hamilton and the Federalists,” wrote Dinesh D’Souza in Hillary’s America: The Secret History of the Democratic Party.
The Democratic-Republican Party was initially just a “loosely aligned group that shared their opposition to the programs introduced in the 1790s,” wrote University of Virginia political scientist Larry Sabato. “Many of these programs, proposed by Alexander Hamilton, favored merchants, speculators, and the rich.”
Federalists including Hamilton favored the creation of a national bank and the power to impose taxes. Farmers in the western United States strongly opposed taxation because they worried about not being able to pay and having their land being bought up by “eastern interests,” Sabato wrote. Jefferson and Hamilton also clashed over the creation of a national bank; Jefferson did not believe the Constitution permitted such a move, while Hamilton believed the document was open to interpretation on the matter.