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Who Was The Leader Of The Radical Republicans

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Who Was The Leader Of The Radical Republicans In Congress

Johnson v. The Radical Republicans


In Baltimore on May 19, 1870, 20,000 participants celebrate the ratification of the 15th Amendment. The Radical Republicans believed blacks were entitled to the same political rights and opportunities as whites. They also believed that the Confederate leaders should be punished for their roles in the Civil War.

Beside above, what did the radical Republicans do? The Radical Republicans were a faction of the Republican Party during the American Civil War. They were distinguished by their fierce advocacy for the abolition of slavery, enfranchisement of black citizens, and holding the Southern states financially and morally culpable for the war.

Besides, who were the Radical Republicans during the Civil War?

Radical leaders included Henry Winter Davis, Thaddeus Stevens, Benjamin Butler, and George Sewall Boutwell in the House and Charles Sumner, Benjamin Wade, and Zachariah Chandler in the Senate.

How did the radical Republicans differ from the Republican majority?

Moderate Republicans, and the majority of the Republican Party, wanted assurance that slavery and treason were dead. Radical Republicans, on the other hand, hoped that reconstruction could achieve black equality, free land distribution to former slaves, and voting rights for African Americans.

Why Did President Johnson And The Radical Republicans Fight So Fiercely Over Reconstruction

The Radical Republicans opposed Lincolns plan because they thought it too lenient toward the South. Radical Republicans believed that Lincolns plan for Reconstruction was not harsh enough because, from their point of view, the South was guilty of starting the war and deserved to be punished as such.

Department Of The West

Command and duties

Blair feud and corruption charges

Frémont’s arrival brought an aristocratic air that raised eyebrows and general disapproval among the people of St. Louis. Soon after he came into command, Frémont became involved in a with , who was a member of the powerful and brother of Lincoln’s cabinet member. To gain control of Missouri politics, Blair complained to Washington that Frémont was “extravagant” and that his command was brimming with a “horde of pirates”, who were defrauding the army. This caused Lincoln to send Adjutant General to check in on Frémont, who reported that Frémont was incompetent and had made questionable army purchases.The imbroglio became a national scandal, and Frémont was unable to keep a handle on supply affairs. A Congressional subcommittee investigation headed by and a later Commission on War Claims investigation into the entire Western Department confirmed that many of Blair’s charges were true.

Confederate capture of Springfield

Response to Confederate threat

Recaptured Springfield

Emancipation edict controversy

“here is not a day to lose in disavowing emancipation or Kentucky is gone over the mill dam.”

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Problem Of Reconstructing The South

As Congress debated how the U.S. would be organized after the war, the status of freed slaves and former Confederates remained undetermined. Stevens stated that what was needed was a “radical reorganization of southern institutions, habits, and manners.” Stevens, Sumner, and other radicals argued that the southern states should be treated like conquered provinces without constitutional rights. Lincoln, on the contrary, said that only individuals, not states, had rebelled. In July 1864, Stevens pushed Lincoln to sign the WadeDavis Bill, which required at least half of prewar voters to sign an oath of loyalty for a state to gain readmission. Lincoln, who advocated his more lenient ten percent plan, pocket vetoed it.

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Thaddeus Stevens, a Radical Republican leader in the U.S ...
  • The Fifteenth Amendment granted the vote to all black men, giving freed slaves and free blacks greater political power than they had ever had in the United States. Blacks in former Confederate states elected a handful of black U.S. congressmen and a great many black local and state leaders who instituted ambitious reform and modernization projects in the South. However, the Fifteenth Amendment continued to exclude women from voting. Women continued to fight for suffrage through the NWSA and AWSA.
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    Court Martial And Resignation

    On January 16, 1847, Commodore Stockton appointed Frémont following the , and then left Los Angeles. Frémont functioned for a few weeks without controversy, but he had little money to administer his duties as governor. Previously, unknown to Stockton and Frémont, the Navy Department had sent orders for Sloat and his successors to establish military rule over California. These orders, however, postdated Kearny’s orders to establish military control over California. Kearny did not have the troop strength to enforce those orders, and was forced to rely on Stockton’s Marines and Frémont’s California Battalion until army reinforcements arrived. On February 13, specific orders were sent from Washington through Commanding General Winfield Scott giving Kearny the authority to be military governor of California. Kearny, however, did not directly inform Frémont of these orders from Scott. Kearny ordered that Frémont’s California Battalion be enlisted into the U.S. Army and Frémont bring his battalion archives to Kearny’s headquarters in Monterey.

    Theodore Grivas wrote that “It does not seem quite clear how Frémont, an army officer, could have imagined that a naval officer could have protected him from a charge of insubordination toward his superior officer “. Grivas goes on to say, however, that “This conflict between Kearny, Stockton, and Frémont perhaps could have been averted had methods of communication been what they are today.”

    Legalization Of Slave Marriages

    Before 1864, slave marriages had not been recognized legally; emancipation did not affect them. When freed, many made official marriages. Before emancipation, slaves could not enter into contracts, including the marriage contract. Not all free people formalized their unions. Some continued to have common-law marriages or community-recognized relationships. The acknowledgement of marriage by the state increased the state’s recognition of freed people as legal actors and eventually helped make the case for parental rights for freed people against the practice of apprenticeship of Black children. These children were legally taken away from their families under the guise of “providing them with guardianship and ‘good’ homes until they reached the age of consent at twenty-one” under acts such as the Georgia 1866 Apprentice Act. Such children were generally used as sources of unpaid labor.

    With the help of the bureau, the recently freed slaves began voting, forming political parties, and assuming the control of labor in many areas. The bureau helped to start a change of power in the South that drew national attention from the Republicans in the North to the conservative Democrats in the South. This is especially evident in the between Grant and Seymour , where almost 700,000 Black voters voted and swayed the election 300,000 votes in Grant’s favor.

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    What Were The Key Elements Of Radical Reconstruction

    Radical Republican Reconstruction Plan

    • Revenge a desire among some to punish the South for causing the war.
    • Concern for the freedmen some believed that the federal government had a role to play in the transition of freedmen from slavery to freedom.

    State Constitutional Conventions: 18671869

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    The 11 Southern states held constitutional conventions giving Black men the right to vote, where the factions divided into the Radical, conservative, and in-between delegates. The Radicals were a coalition: 40% were Southern White Republicans ; 25% were White carpetbaggers, and 34% were Black. Scalawags wanted to disenfranchise all of the traditional White leadership class, but moderate Republican leaders in the North warned against that, and Black delegates typically called for universal voting rights. The carpetbaggers inserted provisions designed to promote economic growth, especially financial aid to rebuild the ruined railroad system. The conventions set up systems of free public schools funded by tax dollars, but did not require them to be racially integrated.

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    National Support Of Reconstruction Declines

    Grant’s support from Congress and the nation declined due to scandals within his administration and the political resurgence of the Democrats in the North and South. By 1870, most Republicans felt the war goals had been achieved, and they turned their attention to other issues such as economic policies.

    Attacks Against Native Americans In California And Oregon Country

    Taking 16 men, Frémont split his party again, arriving at Sutter’s Fort in the on December 9. Frémont promptly sought to stir up patriotic enthusiasm among the American settlers there. He promised that if war with Mexico started, his military force would protect the settlers. Frémont went to , to talk with the American consul, , and Mexican commandant, under the pretext of gaining fuller supplies. In February 1846, Frémont reunited with 45 men of his expedition party near , giving the United States a formidable military army in California. Castro and Mexican officials were suspicious of Frémont and he was ordered to leave the country. Frémont and his men withdrew and camped near the summit of what is now named . Headstrong and with much audacity, Frémont raised the United States Flag in defiance of Mexican authority.

    Playing for time, after a four-day standoff and Castro having a superior number of Mexican troops, Frémont and his men went north to Oregon, executing the along the way. Estimates of the casualties vary. Expedition members Thomas E. Breckenridge and Thomas S. Martin claim the number of Native Americans killed as “120150” and “over 175” respectively, but the eyewitness Tustin claimed that at least 600700 Native Americans were killed on land, with another 200 or more dying in the water. There are no records of any expedition members being killed or even wounded in the massacre., one of the mounted attackers, later stated, “It was a perfect butchery.”

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    Democrats Try A New Departure

    A Republican Form of Government and No Domestic Violence

    By 1870, the DemocraticConservative leadership across the South decided it had to end its opposition to Reconstruction and Black suffrage to survive and move on to new issues. The Grant administration had proven by its crackdown on the Ku Klux Klan that it would use as much federal power as necessary to suppress open anti-Black violence. Democrats in the North concurred with these Southern Democrats. They wanted to fight the Republican Party on economic grounds rather than race. The offered the chance for a clean slate without having to re-fight the Civil War every election. Furthermore, many wealthy Southern landowners thought they could control part of the newly enfranchised Black electorate to their own advantage.

    In North Carolina, Republican Governor used state troops against the Klan, but the prisoners were released by federal judges. Holden became the first governor in American history to be impeached and removed from office. Republican political disputes in Georgia split the party and enabled the Redeemers to take over.

    What Were The Goals Of Radical Reconstruction


    After the election of November 6, 1866, Congress imposes its own Reconstruction policies, referred to by historians as Radical Reconstruction. This re-empowers the Freedmans Bureau and sets reform efforts in motion that will lead to the 14th and 15th Amendments, which, respectively, grant citizenship to all

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    Why Did Lincoln And Johnsons Plans Fail

    The Radical Republicans opposed Lincolns plan because they thought it too lenient toward the South. Radical Republicans believed that Lincolns plan for Reconstruction was not harsh enough because, from their point of view, the South was guilty of starting the war and deserved to be punished as such.

    What Was The Conflict Between Johnson And The Radical Republicans

    During the years immediately following the Civil War, President Andrew Johnson clashed repeatedly with the Republican-controlled Congress over reconstruction of the defeated South. Johnson vetoed legislation that Congress passed to protect the rights of those who had been freed from slavery.

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    Revisionists And Beardians 1930s1940s

    In the 1930s, became popular among scholars. As disciples of , revisionists focused on economics, downplaying politics and constitutional issues. The central figure was a young scholar at the University of Wisconsin, , who in his PhD dissertation, finished in 1924, developed a complex new interpretation of Reconstruction. The Dunning School portrayed freedmen as mere pawns in the hands of the carpetbaggers. Beale argued that the carpetbaggers themselves were pawns in the hands of Northern industrialists, who were the real villains of Reconstruction. These industrialists had taken control of the nation during the Civil War, and set up high tariffs to protect their profits, as well as a lucrative national banking system and a railroad network fueled by government subsidies and secret payoffs. The return to power of the Southern Whites would seriously threaten all their gains, and so the ex-Confederates had to be kept out of power. The tool used by the industrialists was the combination of the Northern Republican Party and sufficient Southern support using carpetbaggers and Black voters. The rhetoric of civil rights for Blacks, and the dream of equality, was rhetoric designed to fool idealistic voters. Beale called it “claptrap”, arguing: “Constitutional discussions of the rights of the Negro, the status of Southern states, the legal position of ex-rebels, and the powers of Congress and the president determined nothing. They were pure sham.”

    Who Was A Leader Of The Radical Republicans In The 1860s When The Us Civil War Occurred

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    Prominent men in America who were Radical Republicans included Benjamin F. Wade, Benjamin Butler, Horace Greeley, Frederick Douglass, Charles Sumner, and Thaddeus Stevens. At one point in the 1860s, Thaddeus Stevens was the leader of the Radical Republican in the U.S. House of Representatives. The Radicals, a faction of the regular Republican Party, came into prominence on the national level after 1860. With Thaddeus Stevens as their leader and fearsome reformer, they never backed down from a fight.

    In 1866, Stevens and the Republicans nullified Andrew Johnson’s Presidential Reconstruction plan and passed groundbreaking civil rights legislation and the 14th Amendment over his veto. Stevens was also instrumental in the congressional Reconstruction plan to place the South under military occupation, and to grant Black men the vote. He was genuinely committed to Black social equality, but also admitted that enfranchising Blacks would ensure the continued dominance of the Republican Party.

    Thaddeus Stevens was the second of four children. He was born in the state of Vermont in Danville in April 1792. As a young man, he graduated from Dartmouth College. To start his professional career, he became a lawyer and formidable opponent in court. Later in his life, Thaddeus was an ardent abolitionist in and out of government. He always championed the civil rights and equality of all men.

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    The End Of The Movement

    • The Radical movement was coming to an end, its agenda superseded by concerns about the economy, which had been hit by recession in 1873.
    • In the Congressional elections of 1874, the Democrats took control. Southern State legislatures gradually reverted to the Democrats as well, and the reforms of the Radical Republicans began to be rolled back.
    • In the highly controversial 1876 presidential election, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes managed to win power despite losing the popular vote, when he promised Southern States that all federal troops would be withdrawn.
    • After this, civil rights were no longer enforced in the South, and the former Confederate states brought in the so-called Jim Crow laws.
    • These laws allowed the segregation of white and black people, and although they did not explicitly state that black people could not vote, the conditions that had to be met in order to vote were disproportionately unfavourable to African-Americans. The inequality imposed by the Jim Crow laws persisted for almost a century.

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    Republican Party Presidential Candidate

    In 1856, Frémont was the first presidential candidate of the new . The Republicans, whose party had formed in 1854, were united in their opposition to the Pierce Administration and the spread of slavery into the West. Initially, Frémont was asked to be the Democratic candidate by former Virginia Governor and the powerful Preston family. Frémont announced that he was for Free Soil Kansas and was against the enforcement of the 1850 . Republican leaders , , and were able to get Frémont to join their political party. Seeking a united front and a fresh face for the party, the Republicans nominated Frémont for president over other candidates, and conservative of New Jersey, for vice president, at their June 1856 convention held in Philadelphia. The Republican campaign used the slogan “Free Soil, Free Men, and Frémont” to crusade for free farms and against the . Frémont, popularly known as The Pathfinder, however, had voter appeal and remained the symbol of the Republican Party. The Democratic Party nominated .

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    Road To The Presidency

    At the Republican presidential convention the same year in Chicago, the delegates were divided into three principal camps: the Stalwarts , who backed former president Ulysses S. Grant; the Half-Breed supporters of Maine Sen. James G. Blaine; and those committed to Secretary of the Treasury John Sherman. Tall, bearded, affable, and eloquent, Garfield steered fellow Ohioan Shermans campaign and impressed so many with his largely extemporaneous nominating speech that he, not the candidate, became the focus of attention. As the chairman of the Ohio delegation, Garfield also led a coalition of anti-Grant delegates who succeeded in rescinding the unit rule, by which a majority of delegates from a state could cast the states entire vote. This victory added to Garfields prominence and doomed Grants candidacy. Grant led all other candidates for 35 ballots but failed to command a majority. On the 36th ballot the nomination went to a dark horse, Garfield, who was still trying to remove his name from nomination as the bandwagon gathered speed.

    Gradual Emancipation And Compensation

    Radical Republicans: Powerful Faction After Civil War

    In an effort to keep border states in the Union, President Lincoln, as early as 1861, designed gradual programs paid for by government bonds. Lincoln desired , , , and to “adopt a system of gradual emancipation which should work the extinction of slavery in twenty years”. On March 26, 1862, Lincoln met with Senator Charles Sumner and recommended that a special joint session of Congress be convened to discuss giving financial aid to any border states who initiated a plan. In April 1862, the joint session of Congress met; however, the border states were not interested and did not make any response to Lincoln or any congressional emancipation proposal. Lincoln advocated compensated emancipation during the .

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    Civil Rights Act Of 1875

    The was one of the last major acts of Congress and Grant to preserve Reconstruction and equality for . The initial bill was created by Senator . Grant endorsed the measure, despite his previous feud with Sumner, signing it into law on March 1, 1875. The law, ahead of its times, outlawed discrimination for blacks in , schools, transportation, and selecting juries. Although weakly enforceable, the law spread fear among whites opposed to interracial justice and was overturned by the Supreme Court in 1883. The later enforceable borrowed many of the earlier 1875’s law’s provisions.

    Final Months And Death

    During the recess of the impeachment court, the Republicans met in convention in Chicago and nominated Grant for president. Stevens did not attend and was dismayed by the exclusion of African-American suffrage from the party platform as radical influence began to fade in the Republican Party. When the Senate returned to session, it voted down Articles II and III by the same 3519 margin as before, and Chase declared the President acquitted. Stevens did not give up on the idea of removing Johnson; in July, he proffered several more impeachment articles . He offered a bill to divide Texas into several parts to gain additional Republican senators to vote out Johnson. It was defeated; the Herald stated, “It is lamentable to see this old man, with one foot in the grave, pursuing the President with such vindictiveness.” Nevertheless, Stevens planned to revisit the question of impeachment when Congress met again in late 1868.

    I repose in this quiet and secluded spotNot from any natural preference for solitudeBut, finding other Cemeteries limited as to Raceby Charter RulesEQUALITY OF MAN BEFORE HIS CREATOR

    The inscription on Stevens’s grave

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    Railroad Subsidies And Payoffs

    Every Southern state subsidized railroads, which modernizers believed could haul the South out of isolation and poverty. Millions of dollars in bonds and subsidies were fraudulently pocketed. One ring in North Carolina spent $200,000 in bribing the legislature and obtained millions of state dollars for its railroads. Instead of building new track, however, it used the funds to speculate in bonds, reward friends with extravagant fees, and enjoy lavish trips to Europe. Taxes were quadrupled across the South to pay off the railroad bonds and the school costs.

    Early Life And Political Career

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    The last president born in a log cabin, Garfield was the son of Abram Garfield and Eliza Ballou, who continued to run the familys impoverished Ohio farm after her husbands death in 1833. Garfield dreamed of foreign ports of call as a sailor but instead worked for about six weeks guiding mules that pulled boats on the Ohio and Erie Canal, which ran from Lake Erie to the Ohio River. By his own estimate, Garfield, who did not know how to swim, fell into the canal some 16 times and contracted malaria in the process. Always studious, he attended Western Reserve Eclectic Institute at Hiram, Ohio, and graduated from Williams College. He returned to the Eclectic Institute as a professor of ancient languages and in 1857, at age 25, became the schools president. A year later he married Lucretia Rudolph and began a family that included seven children . Garfield also studied law and was ordained as a minister in the Disciples of Christ church, but he soon turned to politics.


    For nine terms, until 1880, Garfield represented Ohios 19th congressional district. As chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations, he became an expert on fiscal matters and advocated a high protective tariff, and, as a Radical Republican, he sought a firm policy of Reconstruction for the South. In 1880 the Ohio legislature elected him to the U.S. Senate.

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    Early Life And Education

    Stevens was born in Danville, Vermont on April 4, 1792. He was the second of four children, all boys, and was named to honor the Polish general who served in the American Revolution, Thaddeus Kociuszko. His parents were Baptists who had emigrated from Massachusetts around 1786. Thaddeus was born with a club foot which, at the time, was seen as a judgment from God for secret parental sin. His older brother was born with the same condition in both feet. The boys’ father, Joshua Stevens, was a farmer and cobbler who struggled to make a living in Vermont. After fathering two more sons , Joshua abandoned the children and his wife Sarah . The circumstances of his departure and his subsequent fate are uncertain; he may have died at the Battle of Oswego during the War of 1812.

    Sarah Stevens struggled to make a living from the farm even with the increasing aid of her sons. She was determined that her sons improve themselves, and in 1807 moved the family to the neighboring town of Peacham, Vermont, where she enrolled young Thaddeus in the Caledonia Grammar School . He suffered much from the taunts of his classmates for his disability. Later accounts describe him as “wilful, headstrong” with “an overwhelming burning desire to secure an education.”

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