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What National Policies Did Republicans Pursue During The Civil War

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President Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address

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In 1864, Lincoln was reelected, carrying fifty-four percent of the popular vote and all but three northern statesNew Jersey, Delaware, and Kentucky. The president delivered his Second Inaugural Address from the east portico of the Capitol, under the buildingâs newly completed iron dome, on March 4, 1865. The power of the address is deepened by its conciseness and brevity, particularly when it is read in counterpoint with Lincolnâs First Inaugural Address. This typeset version of the address with a few annotations in Lincolnâs hand was the presidentâs reading copy on inauguration day. The spacing of each cut-and-pasted passage gives the viewer a sense of how he delivered the speech.

Abraham Lincoln . Inaugural Address, March 1865. Pasted-up typeset reading copy. Abraham Lincoln Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress

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A Supreme Court First

The day after the House of Representatives passed the Thirteenth Amendment, another barrier was broken, this time in the judicial branch. Lawyer John S. Rock became the first African American admitted to practice before the United States Supreme Court. Although Lincoln had been at odds politically with his former Treasury Secretary, Salmon P. Chase, he appointed him chief justice in light of Chaseâs longstanding commitment to the rights of African Americans, which Rock also recognized.

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Shermans March To The Sea

In 1864, Samuel Hawkins Marshall Byers III, of the 5th Volunteer Iowa Infantry was imprisoned in Columbia, South Carolina. When Byers learned of Shermanâs decisive military operation and the fall of Atlanta, he was inspired to write a five-stanza poem. In his autobiography, Byers would claim that the poem was smuggled out of the prison camp by an exchanged prisoner named Tower, who carried the song in this wooden limb through the lines to our soldiers in the North, where it was sung everywhere and with demonstration. Set to music by J. O. Rockwell, the song was issued as sheet music and remained popular for decades after its first publication in 1865.

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  • J. O. Rockwell, music. Shermanâs March to the Sea. Boston: Oliver Ditson Company, 1882. Music Division, Library of Congress

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Essay About Lincoln’s Attitude Towards The Civil War

For Lincoln in the 1850s, the big point was preventing the spread of slavery. As President, the big point was preserving the Union and then ending slavery as well. So, Lincolns moral universe was framed by what was right and what was practical. That was especially the case regarding slavery.

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A Few Appropriate Remarks At Gettysburg

The South Did Rise Again: Reconstruction as Americas First Failure in ...

Included in the official party at the dedication of what would become Gettysburg National Cemetery, Commissioner of Public Buildings Benjamin B. French contributed a hymn to the program. Frenchâs diary entry describing the day linked the past with the present as he recalled that former President John Quincy Adamsâs efforts against slavery had come to fruition with President Abraham Lincolnâs promise of a new birth of freedom for the nation. In his diary, French recorded the approval of the crowd to Lincolnâs short but appropriate remarks, which history would enshrine as one of the greatest American speeches of all time.

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Shermans Special Order No 15

As Shermanâs troops swept through Georgia and the Carolinas, many freed slaves attached themselves to his army. Concerned about their welfare and their effect on the armyâs progress, the general and Secretary of War Stanton conferred with black church officials in Savannah, who asserted that freed people needed access to land to sustain themselves. Thus, Sherman issued an order in January 1865 granting former slaves forty-acre plots of coastline property from Charleston, South Carolina to Jacksonville, Florida, and the right to oversee their own affairs subject to U.S. military and congressional authority. President Andrew Johnson would restore most of the confiscated land to its original owners after the war.

William T. Sherman. Special Order No. 15, January 16, 1865. Page 2. William A. Gladstone Afro-American Military Collection, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress

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What Enabled The Republican Party To Dominate National Politics After The Civil War


During and after the Civil War, the Republican Party came to dominate national politics. In the immediate post-war years, this dominance was a product of policies related to Reconstruction. As the 1800s progressed, however, Republican dominance waxed and waned. The end of Reconstruction was a critical moment that altered the party’s hold on national politics.

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What Is Radical Reconstruction

How true radical was radical Reconstruction?

How truly radical was radical Reconstruction? After northern voters rejected Johnsons policies in the congressional elections in late 1866, Republicans in Congress took firm hold of Reconstruction in the South. Blacks won election to southern state governments and even to the U.S. Congress during this period.

Why was radical Reconstruction radical?

The radical republicans believed blacks were entitled to the same political rights and opportunities as whites. They also believed that the confederate leaders should be punished for their roles in the civil war.

What was radical about radical Reconstruction?

The Radical Republicans believed blacks were entitled to the same political rights and opportunities as whites. They also believed that the Confederate leaders should be punished for their roles in the Civil War.

Why was the Radical Republicans plan for Reconstruction considered radical?

The Radical Republican plan was considered radical because it involved completely reforming and re-creating Southern society. To accomplish this, the US Army had to occupy many Southern states in order to protect the newly freed Black population and ensure their right to vote.

What was the goal of the Radical Reconstruction?

Why was Tennessee not included in the Reconstruction Acts?

Lessons For The Global Economy

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Lincoln would have well understood the challenges facing many modern emerging nations, particularly large and diverse ones such as China, Russia, India, Brazil, and Indonesia. Of course, the context is different. Today, the forces of economic disruption are generally external rather than internal. The source of turmoil is the rapid expansion of international commerce, finance, communications, and transportation, which is inexorably drawing industrialized and emerging nations together into one large global economy.

Now, as then, we also hear charges of worker exploitation, this time because multinationals have established manufacturing facilities in low-wage countries. And, in another echo of Lincolns time, there are calls for protectionist measures. These come not only from companies and workers in industrialized countries, who must compete with lower-priced goods from emerging economies, but also from companies and workers in emerging economies, who must compete against the industrialized economies more technologically advanced products.

One could benefit by looking to Lincoln and the Republican Congress that came to power with him after the election of 1860. Emerging economies today are unlikely to replicate their policies per se. But much can be learned from the principles that informed those policies:

  • Emphasize the good of the national economy over regional interests.
  • Tailor your policies to your own national situation.

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Political Parties Abraham Lincoln And Slavery

The Republican Party had existed less than a decade before war began in 1861, and was a coalition of two factions. The radicals were abolitionists who saw the war as a means to end slavery in America. The more moderate wing of the Republican Party was more interested in preserving the Union while keeping slavery contained in states where it was already legal.

The much older Democratic Party split between those who wanted nothing more than peace, even if it meant allowing Southern secession. Other Democrats allied strongly with the Republicans’ efforts to maintain the Union while still others opposed secession but did not agree with how Lincoln wanted to prosecute the war. With varying levels of success, Abraham Lincoln was able to form a coalition from both Republican and Democratic factions that successfully defeated the South. Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation and later successfully pressured Congress to adopt the 13th Amendment, which abolished involuntary servitude entirely.

What Did Sumner And Stevens Do During Reconstruction

Sumner advocated integrating schools and giving black men the right to vote while disenfranchising many southern voters. For his part, Stevens considered that the southern states had forfeited their rights as states when they seceded, and were no more than conquered territory that the federal government could organize as it wished.

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The Civil War In Americanovember 1863april 1865


On November 19, 1863, Abraham Lincoln offered a few appropriate remarks at the dedication of a cemetery to fallen Federal troops at Gettysburg. In his brief and eloquent Gettysburg Address, Lincoln articulated the purpose of the war and looked beyond it to a time when the nation would once again be made whole.

Yet even greater sacrifice lay ahead. In spring 1864, the Union and the Confederacy plunged into bloody campaigns that inaugurated a fourth year of fighting, prolonging and increasing the horrors of war. Casualty lists had grown to the hundreds of thousands. Civilians on both sides strained to help their governments cope with never-ending waves of the sick and wounded, as well as white and black refugees fleeing before armies or following in their wake. Throughout the year, the Union pursued a hard war policy, aimed at destroying all resources that could aid the Rebellion. But the South continued to fight the end was not yet in sight.

The Clinton Years And The Congressional Ascendancy: 19922000

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After the election of Democratic President Bill Clinton in 1992, the Republican Party, led by House Minority WhipNewt Gingrich campaigning on a “Contract with America“, were elected to majorities to both Houses of Congress in the Republican Revolution of 1994. It was the first time since 1952 that the Republicans secured control of both houses of U.S. Congress, which with the exception of the Senate during 20012002 was retained through 2006. This capture and subsequent holding of Congress represented a major legislative turnaround, as Democrats controlled both houses of Congress for the forty years preceding 1995, with the exception of the 19811987 Congress in which Republicans controlled the Senate.

In 1994, Republican Congressional candidates ran on a platform of major reforms of government with measures such as a balanced budget amendment and welfare reform. These measures and others formed the famous Contract with America, which represented the first effort to have a party platform in an off-year election. The Contract promised to bring all points up for a vote for the first time in history. The Republicans passed some of their proposals, but failed on others such as term limits.

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Analyze The Causes Of The Civil War

The Whig party was divided into two on this issue and lost support in both the North and the South. Even the American Party, a relatively new faction at the time, was divided on this topic. In 1854, opponents of slavery formed the Republican Party, which included Free-soilers and antislavery Whigs and Democrats. In opposition, those who supported slavery sided with the still-living Democratic Party. Even though members of these parties embraced a vast range of opinion, slavery was the only issue that could bring them to opposite sides.

History Of The Republican Party

Republican Party

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP , is one of the two major political parties in the United States. It is the second-oldest extant political party in the United States after its rival, the Democratic Party.

In 1854, the Republican Party emerged to combat the expansion of slavery into American territories after the passing of the KansasNebraska Act. The early Republican Party consisted of northern Protestants, factory workers, professionals, businessmen, prosperous farmers, and after the Civil War, former black slaves. The party had very little support from white Southerners at the time, who predominantly backed the Democratic Party in the Solid South, and from Catholics, who made up a major Democratic voting block. While both parties adopted pro-business policies in the 19th century, the early GOP was distinguished by its support for the national banking system, the gold standard, railroads, and high tariffs. The party opposed the expansion of slavery before 1861 and led the fight to destroy the Confederate States of America . While the Republican Party had almost no presence in the Southern United States at its inception, it was very successful in the Northern United States, where by 1858 it had enlisted former Whigs and former Free SoilDemocrats to form majorities in nearly every Northern state.

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African American Population Distribution 1890

African American population distribution and migration patterns can be traced using maps published in the statistical atlases prepared by the U. S. Census Bureau for each decennial census from 1870 to 1920. The atlas for the 1890 census includes this map showing the percentage of colored to the total population for each county. Although the heaviest concentrations are overwhelmingly in Maryland, Virginia, and the southeastern states, there appear to be emerging concentrations in the northern urban areas , southern Ohio, central Missouri, eastern Kansas, and scattered areas in the West , reflecting migration patterns that began during Reconstruction.

What Was The Main Point Of Radical Reconstruction

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After the election of November 6, 1866, Congress imposes its own Reconstruction policies, referred to by historians as Radical Reconstruction. This re-empowers the Freedmans Bureau and sets reform efforts in motion that will lead to the 14th and 15th Amendments, which, respectively, grant citizenship to all

What did Radical Republicans want but so?

Radical Republicans believed that African Americans deserved immediate freedom from bondage and should receive the same rights as whites. Radical Republicans favored granting civil rights to African Americans for various reasons. Some radicals truly believed that African Americans were equals to the whites.

What was radical Reconstruction?

Radical Reconstruction, also called Congressional Reconstruction, process and period of Reconstruction during which the Radical Republicans in the U.S. Congress seized control of Reconstruction from Pres. All of the former Confederate states had been readmitted to the Union by 1870.

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Fighting The New Deal Coalition: 19321980

Historian George H. Nash argues:

Unlike the moderate, internationalist, largely eastern bloc of Republicans who accepted some of the Roosevelt Revolution and the essential premises of President Trumans foreign policy, the Republican Right at heart was counterrevolutionary. Anticollectivist, anti-Communist, anti-New Deal, passionately committed to limited government, free market economics, and congressional prerogatives, the G.O.P. conservatives were obliged from the start to wage a constant two-front war: against liberal Democrats from without and me-too Republicans from within.

The Old Right emerged in opposition to the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Hoff says that moderate Republicans and leftover Republican Progressives like Hoover composed the bulk of the Old Right by 1940, with a sprinkling of former members of the Farmer-Labor party, Non-Partisan League, and even a few midwestern prairie Socialists.

Pietistic Republicans Versus Liturgical Democrats: 18901896

Voting behavior by religion, Northern U.S. late 19th century

% Dem
90 10

From 1860 to 1912, the Republicans took advantage of the association of the Democrats with Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion. Rum stood for the liquor interests and the tavernkeepers, in contrast to the GOP, which had a strong dry element. Romanism meant Roman Catholics, especially Irish Americans, who ran the Democratic Party in every big city and whom the Republicans denounced for political corruption. Rebellion stood for the Democrats of the , who tried to break the Union in 1861 and the Democrats in the North, called , who sympathized with them.

Demographic trends aided the Democrats, as the German and Irish Catholic immigrants were Democrats and outnumbered the English and Scandinavian Republicans. During the 1880s and 1890s, the Republicans struggled against the Democrats efforts, winning several close elections and losing two to Grover Cleveland .

Religious lines were sharply drawn. Methodists, Congregationalists, Presbyterians, Scandinavian Lutherans and other in the North were tightly linked to the GOP. In sharp contrast, liturgical groups, especially the Catholics, Episcopalians and German Lutherans, looked to the Democratic Party for protection from pietistic moralism, especially prohibition. Both parties cut across the class structure, with the Democrats more bottom-heavy.

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The Thirteenth Amendment: Forever Free

President Lincoln understood that the Emancipation Proclamation was a wartime measure that would not ensure freedom after the war. He also knew that the slave states that remained loyal to the Union were not included in the proclamation. The only way to truly eliminate the institution of slavery was an amendment to the United States Constitution, which Lincoln successfully lobbied the U.S. Congress to adopt. Witnessed by jubilant African Americans seated in the galleries, the Thirteenth Amendment was passed by the House of Representatives by a vote of 119 to 56 on January 31, 1865. Secretary of State William H. Seward issued a statement verifying the ratification of the amendment by the states on December 18, 1865.

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  • Thirty-eighth Congress of the United States. Ceremonial copy of the Thirteenth Amendment, February 1, 1865. John Hay Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress

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