Thursday, June 16, 2022

How Long Have Republicans Controlled The Senate

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Republicans Hold The House And Senate But Will That End The Washington Gridlock Even With President Trump

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Buoyed by the victory of Donald Trump, Republicans kept control of the House on Tuesday and hung on to their majority in the U.S. Senate, enshrining at least two years of single-party rule in Washington.

Democrats lost the chamber in 2014 and would have needed a net gain of five seats to retake the Senate with Trump in the White House.

They fell well short.

Election 2016: FULL RESULTS »

Many experts and political analysts had predicted a Democratic takeover, given the daunting math facing Republicans — who had to defend far more seats — and Trump’s erratic campaign.

But just as they underestimated the Republican nominee, they failed to account for the resiliency of some of the GOP’s most endangered incumbents.

Republicans staked victories in every one of the hardest-fought contests, with one exception. In Illinois, Democratic Rep. Tammy Duckworth knocked off Mark Kirk, long seen as the most vulnerable GOP member of the Senate.

In Wisconsin, Ron Johnson had been all but written off by strategists in both parties. Instead, he handily fended off a comeback attempt by former Democratic Sen. Russell D. Feingold. In North Carolina, Richard M. Burr won a second term despite waging a lackluster campaign.

Republicans, who currently hold 54 of 100 seats, also posted victories in two states once eyed by Democrats as promising takeover opportunities.

Live updates from the day after the 2016 election »

Voters seemed equally skeptical of change.


Control Of The Us Senate: What Does History Tell Us About How Much It Affects Legislative Policymaking

With the U.S. Senate evenly split between the Republican and Democratic caucuses—something that’s only happened three other times—two political science scholars at the USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences were inspired to study one of those periods. Their research regarding the Senate during the 1953–54 session of Congress, published in the American Political Science Review, examines a period of time when nine senators died and one resigned, flipping party control twice.

USC Dornsife’s Christian Grose, associate professor of political science and public policy, and Nicholas Napolio, a Ph.D. candidate in political science, share insight on their research and what it might tell us about today’s Senate.

The period you studied was particularly tumultuous for the U.S. Senate. What from your research surprised you the most?

Grose: A couple of things stand out. First, conventional wisdom is that because the U.S. Senate is very individualistic, party control of the Senate isn’t that important to advancing a policy agenda. Older research also supports that belief, particularly compared to the U.S. House, where the controlling party rules almost everything. Our research from this period upends that notion by showing that even a one-vote margin of control changed not just the Senate’s policy agenda, but the outcomes. We find this to be true not just for the unusual period we studied, but all the way through the present day.

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Control Of The Us Senate: What Does History Tell Us About How Much It Affects Legislative Policy

Two USC Dornsife political science scholars examine a period in the 1950s when the Senate was evenly divided, nine U.S. senators died and party control of the Senate flipped twice.

With the U.S. Senate evenly split between the Republican and Democratic caucuses — something that’s only happened three other times — two political science scholars at the USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences were inspired to study one of those periods. Their research regarding the Senate during the 1953–54 session of Congress, , examines a period of time when nine senators died and one resigned, flipping party control twice.

USC Dornsife’s Christian Grose, associate professor of political science and public policy, and Nicholas Napolio, a Ph.D. candidate in political science, share insight on their research and what it might tell us about today’s Senate.

The period you studied was particularly tumultuous for the U.S. Senate. What from your research surprised you the most? 

I was also surprised by the suddenness of the changes in the Senate and that so many titans of the upper house unexpectedly and sadly died in such a short time period. It’s a reminder that history is shaped by who lives, and who does not.

We’re not even a year into the current session of Congress. How likely do you think it is that the 50/50 party balance in today’s Senate will change before the 2022 election?

USC Dornsife political science scholars Nicholas Napolio and Christian Grose.

Democrats May Have Control At The Federal Level But Republicans Are Pushing Back Through States

30 state legislatures are now controlled by Republicans, while only 18 are controlled by Democrats.

Though the hotly anticipated “Blue Wave” did not sweep over the country as thoroughly as some analysts had predicted in the weeks and months leading up to the American election on November 3, 2020, there’s no denying that Democrats notched major victories in both the Senate and the White House, despite losing several seats in the House of Representatives.

But that victory is beginning to be undercut by the majority of state legislatures, which are Republican-controlled, as they begin to enact stricter voting laws, pass state sovereignty bills and push through highly conservative legislation to push back against Democratic ideologies in Washington.

Opinionhow Can Democrats Fight The Gop Power Grab On Congressional Seats You Wont Like It

Can republicans keep the house, ALQURUMRESORT.COM

Facing mounting pressure from within the party, Senate Democrats finally hinted Tuesday that an emboldened Schumer may bring the For the People Act back for a second attempt at passage. But with no hope of GOP support for any voting or redistricting reforms and Republicans Senate numbers strong enough to require any vote to cross the 60-vote filibuster threshold, Schumer’s effort will almost certainly fail.

Senate Democrats are running out of time to protect America’s blue cities, and the cost of inaction could be a permanent Democratic minority in the House. Without resorting to nuclear filibuster reform tactics, Biden, Schumer and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi may be presiding over a devastating loss of Democrats’ most reliable electoral fortresses.

Max Burns is a Democratic strategist and founder of Third Degree Strategies. Find him on Twitter @themaxburns.

States With Republican Governors Had Highest Covid Incidence And Death Rates Study Finds

Dareh Gregorian

States with Democratic governors had the highest incidence and death rates from Covid-19 in the first months of the coronavirus pandemic, but states with Republican governors surpassed those rates as the crisis dragged on, a study released Tuesday found.

“From March to early June, Republican-led states had lower Covid-19 incidence rates compared with Democratic-led states. On June 3, the association reversed, and Republican-led states had higher incidence,”the study by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Medical University of South Carolina showed.

“For death rates, Republican-led states had lower rates early in the pandemic, but higher rates from July 4 through mid-December,” the study found.

Democrats Control House And Senate For First Time Since 2011 As Schumer Ousts Mcconnell

U.S.Mitch McConnellChuck SchumerSenateKamala Harris

On Wednesday, Democratic Senator Chuck Schumer of New York took on the role of Senate Majority Leader, taking the title away from Republican Senator Mitch McConnell of Kentucky as Democrats regained control of both congressional chambers for the first time since 2011.

Control of the Senate shifted over to a 50-50 party split on Wednesday as Democratic Georgia Senators Jon Ossoff and Raphael Warnock were both sworn in as the 49th and 50th Democratic senators, leaving Vice President Kamala Harris as the deciding vote should the chambers’ votes ever end in a tie.

Also sworn in on Wednesday was Democratic Senator Alex Padilla of California. Padilla was appointed by California Governor Gavin Newsom to fill the vacated seat of Vice President Kamala Harris, who had previously served as a Californian senator. On Wednesday, Harris swore in Padilla, Ossoff and Warnock.

At the virtual 2020 Democratic National Convention, Schumer said that Democrats would work with Biden to help him achieve his ambitious agenda.

“We will make health care affordable for all, we’ll undo the vicious inequality of income and wealth that has plagued America for far too long, and we’ll take strong, decisive action to combat climate change and save the planet,” Schumer said.

Newsweek contacted Schumer’s office for comment.

Incoming Biden Administration And Democratic House Wont Have To Deal With A Republican

Democrats Raphael Warnock and Jon Ossoff wave to supporters during a joint rally on Nov. 15 in Marietta, Ga.

Democratic challengers Jon Ossoff and Raphael Warnock have defeated Georgia’s two incumbent Republican U.S. senators in the state’s runoff elections, the Associated Press said Wednesday, in a development that gives their party effective control of the Senate.

Ossoff and Warnock were projected the winners over Sens. David Perdue and Kelly Loeffler by the AP following campaigns that drew massive spending and worldwide attention because the runoffs were set to determine the balance of power in Washington. The AP , at about 2 a.m. Eastern, then followed with the call for Ossoff over Perdue on Wednesday afternoon.

President-elect Joe Biden’s incoming administration and the Democratic-run House of Representatives now won’t face the same checks on their policy priorities that they would have faced with a Republican-controlled Senate, though analysts have said the slim Democratic majority in the chamber could mean more power for moderate senators from either party.

See:With sweep expected in Georgia Senate races, Democrats have high hopes for what Biden can do

“It is looking like the Democratic campaign machine was more effective at driving turnout than the Republican one,” said Eurasia Group analyst Jon Lieber in a note late Tuesday.

Warnock then made just before 8 a.m. Eastern time on Wednesday.

With Control Of White House And Congress Democrats Have 2 Years To Make Big Changes

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U.S. Democrats secured unified control of the White House and Congress on Wednesday with the inauguration of President Joe Biden followed by Vice President Kamala Harris swearing in three new Democratic senators.

The three new senators bring the U.S. Senate to a 50-50 Democratic-Republican tie, with Harris as the presiding officer representing the tie-breaking vote.

With the U.S. House continuing under the leadership of Democratic House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, Biden begins his term with the opportunity to work with the two Democrat-controlled chambers to enact significant legislative changes. 

As a result of the shifting political power on Capitol Hill, Senate Democratic leader Chuck Schumer of New York has succeeded Republican Mitch McConnell as Senate majority leader. The Kentucky senator, who served in the top leadership post for six years, was highly skilled at blocking Democratic legislation, as well as advancing former President Donald Trump’s judicial and administration nominees through the confirmation process. 

Schumer acknowledged some of those challenges Wednesday in his first speech as majority leader.

“This Senate will tackle the perils of the moment: a once-in-a-generation health and economic crisis. And it will strive to make progress on generations-long struggle for racial justice, economic justice, equality of opportunity and equality under the law,” Schumer said.

Republicans Introduce 253 Bills To Restrict Voting Rights In States Across The Us

Republican lawmakers in 43 states have introduced a total of 253 bills aimed at restricting access to the ballot box for tens of millions of people. Republican-controlled states, including Southern states that employed “lynch law” terror to block African Americans from voting during the decades-long period of Jim Crow segregation, are flooding their legislatures with measures to effectively disenfranchise working class, poor and minority voters.

The laws largely focus on tightening voter ID requirements, purging voter rolls and restricting absentee and mail-in ballots.

In the United States, state governments have the authority to oversee elections and determine election procedures and rules, including for national elections. Within each state, individual counties have a great deal of latitude in the conduct of elections.

Republicans control both the lower and upper legislative houses in 36 of the 50 states, and both the legislatures and governorships in 23 states, making it very possible for far-reaching barriers to the ballot box to be imposed across much of the country.

Despite opening the door for a return to restrictive and discriminatory voting practices, the 2013 ruling met with little resistance on the part of the Democratic Party. Neither the Obama White House nor the congressional Democrats mounted any serious effort to reverse the evisceration of the Voting Rights Act by enacting new legislation in the years since the reactionary Shelby ruling.


A Different America: How Republicans Hold Near Total Control In 23 Us States

In those states, Republicans hold the governorship and the legislature, giving them the power to take aim at abortion access, trans rights, voting and gun safety

Last modified on Tue 15 Jun 2021 14.38 BST

Democrats across the US cheered last month, as Texas legislators staged a walkout from the statehouse to block the passage of a Republican bill that would enact a number of restrictions on voting access.

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But the victory seemed short-lived, as the state’s Republican governor, Greg Abbott, quickly announced he planned to call a special session to get the legislation passed.

The walkout and the probably only temporary relief it provides for Democrats demonstrated the immense legislative power that Republicans have in dozens of states across the country and the ability that gives them to pass a hard-right agenda on a vast range of issues from abortion to the ability to vote.

In 23 US states, Republicans hold the governorship and the legislature, giving the party near total control to advance its policies. This year, Republicans have used that power to aggressively push their conservative social agenda – taking aim at abortion access, transgender rights and gun safety, as well as voting laws.

During the Texas legislative session, which concluded late last month, Republicans approved bills to allow permitless carry of firearms, ban abortions after about six weeks of pregnancy and increase criminal penalties for protesters who block intersections.

These 3 Maps Show Just How Dominant Republicans Are In America After Tuesday

When it comes to control of state government, Republicans dominated at record levels during the Obama years. On Tuesday, they somehow managed to become even more dominant.

In part because Americans like a check and balance on their president, in part because Republicans played their cards right, Republicans grabbed more of America’s statehouses and governor’s mansions during the Obama administration than at any time in the modern era. And they held onto those majorities Tuesday.

Results are still trickling in, but it looks like Republicans will still control an all-time high 69 of 99 state legislative chambers. They’ll hold at least 33 governorships, tying a 94-year-old record.

That means that come 2017, they’ll have total control of government in at least 25 states, and partial control in 20 states. According to population calculations by the conservative group Americans for Tax Reform, that translates to roughly 80 percent of the population living in a state either all or partially controlled by Republicans.

Things are just as good for the GOP at the federal level, where Republicans have reached the trifecta. They just won the White House, they’ve kept their majorities in Congress and they have a chance to reshape the Supreme Court to a  strong conservative ideological leaning.

Democrats, meanwhile, will go into 2017 without any significant gains in Congress and with total control of just five states.

Eric Holder: There Is Still A Fight For Democrats Against Gop Gerrymandering

The GOP Senate Is Asleep at the Wheel

In McConnell’s Kentucky, for instance, Republicans are divided over how far to go during the upcoming redistricting process, which they control in the deep-red state. The more extreme wing wants to crack the Democratic stronghold of Louisville, currently represented by Rep. John Yarmuth. More cautious Republicans like McConnell are willing to settle for smaller changes that reduce Democratic margins while stuffing more Republican voters into hotly contested swing districts.

Make no mistake: McConnell’s caution isn’t rooted in any newfound respect for the integrity of our electoral process. Instead, Republicans are mainly worried about avoiding the costly and embarrassing court decisions that invalidated their most extreme overreaches and potentially turn the line-drawing over to the courts. So McConnell’s approach doesn’t reject partisan gerrymandering — it just avoids the type of high-profile city-cracking that could land the Kentucky GOP in federal court.

Gop Senator Says Republicans Didn’t Control Senate When They Held Majority

Michael Burke&nbsp

Sen. Ron Johnson  said Sunday that Republicans didn’t control Congress during the first two years of President Trump

Johnson said that while the GOP had a majority in the Senate during Trump’s first two years in office, they didn’t control the chamber since Democrats had a large minority.

“You said we controlled both chambers. We didn’t,” Johnson told NBC’s “Meet the Press” host Chuck Todd, who questioned why Republicans didn’t approve funding for Trump’s proposed border wall while they had those majorities.

“We had a majority in the Senate. So you don’t control it. We needed Democrats to support us and they’ve been unified in trying to thwart this president’s No. 1 issue in the campaign, which was to secure the borders,” Johnson said. 

“So no, we didn’t have control,” he continued. “We needed Democrats, we never had any cooperation from Democrats, which is regrettable.”

Republicans were in the majority in both the House and the Senate during the first two years of the Trump presidency, but they only held a slight advantage in the Senate.

They began Trump’s presidency with a 52-48 margin, but that shrunk to 51-49 at the end of 2017 with Democrat Doug Jones’s shocking win in a special Senate election in Alabama.

Republicans expanded their edge in the Senate to 53-47 in November but lost control of the House to Democrats. 

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For instance, in 2020, Yarmuth won his Louisville district with a comfortable 62.7 percent of the vote. By turning Yarmuth’s single district into portions of two or three new districts, Republicans could turn his safe blue seat into swing districts and safe Republican strongholds. But the naked politicking of that kind of move would invite dozens of court challenges from outraged Democrats and election integrity organizations, tying up GOP time and treasure in the middle of campaign season.

Yet relying on the Republican-aligned Supreme Court to find a remedy is a gamble that could just as easily backfire on Democrats. In the 2019 case Rucho v. Common Cause, the conservative majority ruled 5-4 that Congress, not the federal courts, must address partisan gerrymandering. As a result, half a dozen Democrat-filed federal cases were tossed out and the gerrymandered district maps allowed to stand. More outcomes like that would be catastrophic both for Democrats and democracy.

For now, the National Democratic Redistricting Committee is fighting back against Republican efforts in a flurry of high-profile lawsuits. The organization, chaired by former Obama administration Attorney General Eric Holder Jr., has said it is committed to countering the Republican plan to split up blue cities.

The Battleground States Advancing Controversial Election And Voting Bills

May 7, 2021 / 9:51 AM / CBS News

Arizona GOP launches recount of ballots04:43

Washington — Several battleground states controlled by Republicans have pushed for big changes in voting and election laws in recent months, in the wake of former President Donald Trump’s electoral loss and a rise in mail-in voting due to the coronavirus pandemic.

These states are considering changes to election laws, such as measures to enforce additional ID requirements, restrict access to dropboxes and shrink the pool of voters.

Arizona, Florida, and Texas each have growing and increasingly diverse populations and play a substantial role in the outcome of presidential contests. All three have Republican legislatures and governorships. Michigan has a Democratic governor, but its Republican-controlled legislature is considering several bills that could make absentee voting more difficult.

Arizona and Michigan narrowly supported President Biden in the 2020 election, and Mr. Trump won Florida and Texas. Georgia, which Mr. Biden also won, has already passed a controversial voting law including some new restrictions.

Here is a rundown of some of the key states states proposing changes to voting and election laws:

Democrat Jon Ossoff Claims Victory Over David Perdue In Georgia Runoff

Sen. Chuck Schumer of New York is expected to replace GOP Sen. Mitch McConnell as majority leader and will determine which bills come to the floor for votes.

The ambitious proposals addressing climate change and health care and other domestic priorities touted by Biden and Harris will be difficult, if impossible, to advance with more moderate Democrats — especially those facing competitive 2022 midterm reelection campaigns — reluctant to sign onto partisan proposals. The much smaller-than-anticipated House Democratic majority compounds the challenge for the party.

Instead, Biden will need to consider which domestic priorities can get bipartisan support since Senate rules now require anything to get 60 votes to advance. The president-elect has already indicated that additional coronavirus relief will be his first priority, but he has also said he plans to unveil an infrastructure plan that could get support from Republicans.

In a statement Wednesday, Biden said that “Georgia’s voters delivered a resounding message yesterday: they want action on the crises we face and they want it right now. On COVID-19, on economic relief, on climate, on racial justice, on voting rights and so much more. They want us to move, but move together.”

The president-elect also spoke to Democrats’ potential total control of Washington.

Fact Check: How Often One Party Has Controlled The Federal Government


WHO SAID IT: A Republic reader.

THE COMMENT: “With the inauguration of the next president and his appointment to fill the Supreme Court vacancy, this will be the first time since 1929 that one party controlled the executive, legislative and judicial branches of government at the same time.”

THE FORUM: A letter to the editor in the Nov. 20 edition of The Republic.

WHAT WE’RE LOOKING AT: Whether 1929 was the last year one party controlled all three branches of the federal government.


The letter to the editor was written after November’s election determined Republican Donald Trump would win the White House, giving the party control of the executive branch, and the GOP would continue in the majority in the U.S. House and Senate, thus controlling the legislative branch. A vacancy on the Supreme Court will allow Republicans to also gain a majority there and control of the judicial branch.

The letter implied that one-party dominance of all three branches of the federal government led to the Great Depression. A letter responding to that reader questioned the claim, saying Democrats controlled all three branches from 2009 to 2011.

It turns out both letter-writers are wrong. Here’s what records kept by the White House and Congress, and’s analysis of Supreme Court divisions show:

Two famous examples are Justices Earl Warren and William Brennan, who were appointed by Republican Dwight Eisenhower in the 1950s.

THE FINDING: No stars: False.

Ballotpedia: Majority Of State Legislatures Are Republican Controlled

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The results of the last election solidified a trend that state legislatures were becoming more Republican.

In the 2020 general election, 5,875 state legislative seats in 86 legislative chambers were up for regularly scheduled elections. Roughly five percent of them, 315, flipped from one party to another.

The majority of the 315 – 68 percent, or 215 in total – flipped from Democrat to Republican. Whereas 78 Republican seats, 24.8 percent, flipped to Democrat, according to an analysis published by Ballotpedia.

On Nov. 3, the net change was Republicans gained 141 seats, Democrats lost 133 seats, and independent and third party candidates lost eight seats.

At least one seat flipped parties in every state holding regularly scheduled state legislative elections except for Hawaii, Ballotpedia reports.

The percentage of state legislative seat flips in 2020 represents a 38 percent decrease from 2018, when 508 seats flipped party affiliations.

New Hampshire saw the most flipped seats of 50, resulting in both chambers of its General Court changing from Democratic to Republican control.

As of November 2020, three-fourths of states have governors and legislatures of the same party, “a sign that ticket-splitting may be waning nationwide,” the National Conference of State Legislatures reports.

Biden Introduces Attorney General Nominee In Wake Of Capitol Riot

While introducing his nominee for attorney general, Merrick Garland, President-elect Joseph R. Biden Jr. said the nation needed to restore the independence and integrity of the Justice Department.

“What we witnessed yesterday was not dissent, it was not disorder, it was not protest — it was chaos. They weren’t protesters — don’t dare call them protesters — they were a riotous mob, insurrectionists, domestic terrorists. It’s that basic, it’s that simple. I wish we could say we couldn’t see it coming. But that isn’t true. We could see it coming. The past four years, we’ve had a president who has made his contempt for our democracy, our Constitution, the rule of law clear in everything he has done. We need to restore the honor, the integrity, the independence of the Department of Justice in this nation that’s been so badly damaged. And so many former leaders of that department in both parties have so testified and stated that. I want to be clear to those who lead this department, who you will serve. You won’t work for me. You are not the president or the vice president’s lawyer. Your loyalty is not to me. It is to the law, the Constitution, the people of this nation, to guarantee justice.” “As everyone who watched yesterday’s events in Washington now understands, if they did not understand before, the rule of law is not just some lawyer’s turn of phrase. It is the very foundation of our democracy.”

Lbj Envisions A Great Society In His State Of The Union Address

EXPLAINER: As Georgia awaits, GOP still has Senate control ...

On January 4, 1965, in his State of the Union address, President Lyndon Baines Johnson lays out for Congress a laundry list of legislation needed to achieve his plan for a Great Society. On the heels of John F. Kennedy’s tragic death, Americans had elected Johnson, his vice …read more

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Map: Republicans To Have Full Control Of 23 States Democrats 15

In 2021, Republicans will have full control of the legislative and executive branch in 23 states. Democrats will have full control of the legislative and executive branch in 15 states.

Population of the 24 fully R-controlled states: 134,035,267Population of the 15 fully D-controlled states: 120,326,393

Republicans have full control of the legislative branch in 30 states. Democrats have full control of the legislative branch in 18 states.

Population of the 30 fully R-controlled legislature states: 185,164,412Population of the 18 fully D-controlled legislature states: 133,888,565

This week, Andrew Cuomo’s star went down in flames. While the smoke clears, let’s take a moment to sit back and reminisce about the governor’s long history with ethical and legal violations.

Cuomo’s controversies regarding sexual harassment and nursing homes deaths were far from his first abuses of power. In fact, his administration has a long history of it, ranging from interfering with ethics commissions, to financial corruption.

In July 2013, Cuomo formed the Moreland Commission to investigate corruption in New York’s government. At first it was a success, giving Cuomo good PR. Yet as it went on there were rumors that, contrary to his claim that “Anything they want to look at they can look at,” Cuomo was interfering with the Commission’s investigations. There was friction within the Commission, itself with two factions forming: “’Team Independence’ and ‘Team We-Have-a-Boss’.”

Gubernatorial And Legislative Party Control Of State Government

  • Top 10 Closest Primaries: January to June 2020
  • Wave elections

Gubernatorial and legislative party control of state government refers to the role of political parties in the power dynamic between state legislatures and executives. Below, we examine the partisan affiliation of the 1,972 state senators, 5,411 state representatives, and 50 state governors across the United States.

Partisan breakdown of state governments

Below, Ballotpedia presents our information on the partisan breakdown of state senators, state representatives, and governors as well as the state legislature and state executive branch as a whole. We also examine state government trifectas, which occur when the state house, the state senate, and the office of the governor are each controlled by one political party. Trifectas are important to highlight since unified partisan affiliation between the branches of state government can impact a state’s legislative process.

The following maps display current state government trifectas as well as historical trifectas leading up to the 2010, 2012, 2014, 2016, 2018, and 2020 elections. Use the buttons below to select a map.

Republicans Now Enjoy Unmatched Power In The States It Was A 40

Over the past 40 years, Republicans have quietly gained overwhelming power in state legislatures. It did not happen overnight, and it won’t reverse itself soon. The implications could linger for years.

Who controls state legislatures

Who controls state legislatures


Even after the 1980 election — when Ronald Reagan was first elected president — Democrats still controlled most statehouses: 29 to the Republicans’ 15. The two parties shared power in the few that remained, all in the Midwest and Northeast.

After the 2020 election, the numbers nearly reversed. Republicans control 30 state legislatures, while Democrats hold only 18.

How did the GOP make such big gains? And what do those gains mean?

How Congressional Control Has Changed Over The Past 100 Years

With partisan divisions and rancor filling the headlines, it seems like a miracle that Congress can get anything done.

Party control of Congress makes a difference, but not always in predictable ways. When one party holds majorities in the Senate and House of Representatives and holds the presidency, it’s not necessarily easier for all to agree on legislative remedies and reforms. By the same token, when the congressional chambers are split, or the executive is in the opposing party, plenty can be accomplished.

Stacker consulted government records, news reports, historical archives, and research data as of Jan. 7 to look at how party control of Congress has affected outcomes in the past century and how it has changed. Data from the official websites of the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate, as well as data from Ballotpedia and 270toWin, was used to look back on the past 100 years of Congress. Each slide represents a House term of two years and breaks down how many Democrats and Republicans were in each chamber of Congress.

Split congresses dramatically overhauled the nation’s tax code when Ronald Reagan was president, passed landmark legislation addressing equal pay in the workplace, and ended the “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy toward gays and lesbians serving in the U.S. military.

But acrimonious relations between a Republican Congress and Democratic President Bill Clinton forced the government to grind to a halt—twice.

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