List Of Presidents Of The United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States, indirectly elected to a four-year term by the American people through the Electoral College. The officeholder leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.
Since the office was established in 1789, 45 people have served in 46 presidencies. The first president, George Washington, won a unanimous vote of the Electoral College; one, Grover Cleveland, served two non-consecutive terms and is therefore counted as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States .
There are five living former presidents. The most recent to die was George H. W. Bush, on November 30, 2018.
The presidency of William Henry Harrison, who died 31 days after taking office in 1841, was the shortest in American history. Franklin D. Roosevelt served the longest, over twelve years, before dying early in his fourth term in 1945. He is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms. Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected president more than twice, and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.
Vindication Of The Constitutionality Of Alien And Sedition Laws
A large minority in the Virginia legislature opposed the passage of the Virginia Resolutions asserting a states right to declare a federal law unconstitutional and specifically declaring the Alien and Sedition Laws unconstitutional. That group of state legislators published this statement as a vindication of the constitutionality of the Alien and Sedition Laws.
The Awful Crisis which has arrived Must be felt by us all. . . . : T. Nicholson, 1799. Pamphlet. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress
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Trying To Break Through
The rest of the Democratic field is a mix of seasoned politicians, wealthy business people and others looking to break into or regain their toehold in the top tier of contenders.
Former New York City mayor and billionaire media mogul Michael Bloomberg, 77, formally announced his candidacy on Sunday. The move was an about-face for Bloomberg, who had said in March that he would not make a run for the White House.
Ranked by Forbes as the eighth-richest American with an estimated worth of US$53.4 billion, Bloomberg will have the advantage of being able to self-finance his campaign and pour millions of dollars into advertising and hiring staff. He has won allies in the Democratic Party with his advocacy and philanthropy on climate change and in fighting gun violence. Bloomberg served as mayor of New York, the largest U.S. city, from 2002 to 2013.
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The New York entrepreneur and former tech executive is focusing his campaign on an ambitious universal income plan. Yang, 44, wants to guarantee all Americans between the ages of 18 and 64 a US$1,000 check every month.
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Why Did The Democratic And Republican Parties Switch Platforms
02 November 2020
Around 100 years ago, Democrats and Republicans switched their political stances.
The Republican and Democratic parties of the United States didn’t always stand for what they do today.;
During the 1860s, Republicans, who dominated northern states, orchestrated an ambitious expansion of federal power, helping to fund the transcontinental railroad, the state university system and the settlement of the West by homesteaders, and instating a national currency and protective tariff. Democrats, who dominated the South, opposed those measures.;
After the Civil War, Republicans passed laws that granted protections for Black Americans and advanced social justice. And again, Democrats largely opposed these apparent expansions of federal power.
Sound like an alternate universe? Fast forward to 1936.;
Democratic President Franklin Roosevelt won reelection that year on the strength of the New Deal, a set of Depression-remedying reforms including regulation of financial institutions, the founding of welfare and pension programs, infrastructure development and more. Roosevelt won in a landslide against Republican Alf Landon, who opposed these exercises of federal power.
So, sometime between the 1860s and 1936, the party of small government became the party of big government, and the party of big government became rhetorically committed to curbing federal power.;
California Republic And Conquest
In 1846, a group of American settlers in and around rebelled against Mexican rule during the . Afterwards, rebels raised the at Sonoma. The Republic’s only president was , who played a pivotal role during the Bear Flag Revolt. This revolt by American settlers served as a prelude to the later American military invasion of California and was closely coordinated with nearby American military commanders.
The California Republic was short lived; the same year marked the outbreak of the . When Commodore of the sailed into and began the military occupation of California by the United States, Northern California capitulated in less than a month to the United States forces. After a series of defensive battles in , the was signed by the on January 13, 1847, securing American control in California.
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World War Ii To Present
Like in World War I, the state enjoyed a big stimulus to its gunpowder and shipyard industries in World War II. New job opportunities during and after the war in the Wilmington area coaxed African Americans from the southern counties to move to the city. The proportion of blacks constituting the city’s population rose from 15% in 1950 to over 50% by 1980. The surge of black migrants to the north sparked white flight in which middle class whites moved from the city to suburban areas, leading to general segregation of Delaware’s society. In the 1940s and 1950s, the state attempted to integrate its schools. The University of Delaware admitted its first black student in 1948, and local courts ruled that primary schools had to be integrated. Delaware’s integration efforts partially inspired the US Supreme Court’s decision in .
However, integration only encouraged more white flight, and poor economic conditions for the black population led to some violence during the 1960s. Riots broke out in Wilmington in 1967 and again in after which the National Guard occupied the city for nine months to prevent further violence.
This border extends all the way east to the low-tide mark on the New Jersey shore, then continues south along the shoreline until it again reaches the 12-mile arc in the south; then the boundary continues in a more conventional way in the middle of the main channel of the Delaware River.
Civil War And Reconstruction
In the 1850s, the debate over whether slavery should be extended into new Western territories split these political coalitions. Southern Democrats favored slavery in all territories, while their Northern counterparts thought each territory should decide for itself via popular referendum.
At the partys national convention in 1860, Southern Democrats nominated John C. Breckinridge, while Northern Democrats backed Stephen Douglas. The split helped Abraham Lincoln, candidate of the newly formed Republican Party, to victory in the 1860 election, though he won only 40 percent of the popular vote.
The Union victory in the Civil War left Republicans in control of Congress, where they would dominate for the rest of the 19th century. During the Reconstruction era, the Democratic Party solidified its hold on the South, as most white Southerners opposed the Republican measures protecting civil and voting rights for African Americans.
By the mid-1870s, Southern state legislatures had succeeded in rolling back many of the Republican reforms, and Jim Crow laws enforcing segregation and suppressing Black voting rights would remain in place for the better part of a century.
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Biden Meets With Executives To Push Vaccine Mandates
President Biden met on Wednesday with top executives from Microsoft, the Walt Disney Company, Kaiser Permanente and other companies that have endorsed vaccine mandates, days after he announced a federal effort to require employees of large companies to be vaccinated against the coronavirus or be tested regularly.
The administration sought to use the meeting to show that vaccine mandates are good for the economy while spotlighting employers that have mandates for workers or have praised Mr. Bidens order. The meeting was meant to rally more business support for mandates.
Its about saving lives thats what this is all about, said Mr. Biden, who was flanked by Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen and Jeffrey D. Zients, the White House pandemic coordinator.
Vaccinations mean fewer infections, hospitalizations and deaths, and in turn it means a stronger economy, he added.
One of the invitees to the meeting, Tim Boyle, the chief executive of Columbia Sportswear, said in an interview on Wednesday that his company had drafted a policy mandating vaccines months ago. But it had held off carrying it out until Mr. Biden announced last week that he was directing the Labor Department to issue an emergency safety declaration that would effectively function as a vaccine mandate for tens of millions of workers. Columbia Sportswear told its workers that it will put a vaccine requirement in place next week.
Right Of States To Judge Constitutionality Of Federal Laws
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison secretly drafted the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions to counter a perceived threat to individual liberties from the Alien and Sedition Acts. Jefferson and Madison were particularly concerned with charges of sedition brought against Republican critics of the federal government. These resolutions asserted the rights of states to judge the constitutionality of federal laws.
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Democrats From Clinton To Obama
After losing five out of six presidential elections from 1968 to 1988, Democrats captured the White House in 1992 with Arkansas Governor Bill Clintons defeat of the incumbent, George H.W. Bush, as well as third-party candidate Ross Perot.
Clintons eight years in office saw the country through a period of economic prosperity but ended in a scandal involving the presidents relationship with a young intern, Monica Lewinsky. Clintons conduct in the affair eventually led to his impeachment;by the House in 1998; the Senate acquitted him the following year.
Al Gore, Clintons vice president, narrowly captured the popular vote in the general election in 2000, but lost to George W. Bush in the electoral college, after the U.S. Supreme Court called a halt to a manual recount of disputed Florida ballots.
Midway through Bushs second term, Democrats capitalized on popular opposition to the ongoing Iraq War and regained control of the House and Senate.
In 2008, Senator Barack Obama of Illinois rode a wave of popular discontent and economic concerns during the Great Recession to become the first African-American U.S. president.
Opposition to Obama and his policies, particularly health care reform, fueled the growth of the conservative, populist Tea Party movement, helping Republicans make huge gains in Congress during his two terms in office.
The Fourth Party System
The Fourth Party System lasted from about 1896 to 1932, and was dominated by the Republican Party, excepting the 1912 split in which Democrats held the White House for eight years. American history texts usually call it the Progressive Era, and it included World War I and the start of the Great Depression. The period featured a transformation from the issues of the Third Party System, instead focusing on domestic issues such as regulation of railroads and large corporations , the money issue , the protective tariff, the role of labor unions, child labor, the need for a new banking system, corruption in party politics, primary elections, direct election of senators, racial segregation, efficiency in government, womenâs suffrage, and control of immigration. Foreign policy centered on the 1898 Spanish-American War, Imperialism, the Mexican Revolution, World War I, and the creation of the League of Nations.
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Demographics Of American Liberals
A 2005 Pew Research Center study found that liberals were the most educated ideological demographic and were tied with the conservative sub-group of the enterprisers for the most affluent group. Of those who identified as liberal, 49% were college graduates and 41% had household incomes exceeding $75,000, compared to 27% and 28% as the national average, respectively. Liberalism has become the dominant political ideology in academia, with 44â62% identifying as liberal, depending on the exact wording of the survey. This compares with 40â46% liberal identification in surveys from 1969 to 1984. The social sciences and humanities were most liberal whereas business and engineering departments were the least liberal, although even in the business departments liberals outnumbered conservatives by two to one. This feeds the common question of whether liberals are on average more educated than conservatives, their political counterparts. Two Zogby surveys from 2008 and 2010 affirm that self-identified liberals tend to go to college more than self-identified conservatives. Polls have found that young Americans are considerably more liberal than the general population. As of 2009, 30% of the 18â29 cohort was liberal. In 2011, this had changed to 28%, with moderates picking up the two percent.
Survey Of The Site For The Federal City Of Washington
An Act for establishing the temporary and permanent seat of the Government of the United States, was signed into law on July 16, 1790. After giving cursory consideration to other locations, George Washington selected a site for the seat of government with which he was very familiarâthe banks of the Potomac River at the confluence of its Eastern Branch, just above his home at Mount Vernon. Andrew Ellicott , federal surveyor of the District of Columbia, prepared this plan in 1792 of what would become the District of Columbia. The outline of the cityâs grid system and the location of the Capitol, the Presidentâs House, and the mall are clearly visible.
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‘trumpism Is Not Dead’: Gov Gavin Newsom Wins California Recall Battle And Slams Former President For Suggesting The Election Was Rigged As Top Republican Hopeful Larry Elder Says ‘let’s Be Gracious In Defeat’
- Californians went to the polls Tuesday to decide whether Democratic Gov. Gavin Newsom gets to keep his job in a special recall election;
- Newsom won easily with the race called within an hour of polls being closed in the state – and he proclaimed victory from Sacramento;
- ‘Democracy is not a football. You don’t just throw it around. It’s more like, I don’t know, an antique vase,’ Newsom said in his victory speech, calling out ex-President Donald Trump for saying the race was ‘rigged’;
- Republican Larry Elder was the candidate most likely to replace Newsom;
- Instead of challenging the result, Elder said at his election night party in Orange County: ‘Let’s be gracious in defeat’ and kept the door open for a run next year when Newsom is on the ballot again;
Liberalism During The Cold War
American liberalism of the Cold War era was the immediate heir to Franklin D. Roosevelt‘s New Deal and the somewhat more distant heir to the progressives of the early 20th century. Rossinow argues that after 1945 the left-liberal alliance that operated during the New Deal years split apart for good over the issue of Communism. Anti-Communist liberals led by Walter Reuther and Hubert Humphrey expelled the far-left from labor unions and the New Deal coalition and committed the Democratic Party to a strong Cold War policy typified by NATO and the containment of Communism. Liberals became committed to a quantitative goal of economic growth that accepted large near-monopolies such as General Motors and AT&T while rejecting the structural transformation dreamed of by earlier left-liberals. The far-left had its last hurrah in Henry A. Wallace‘s 1948 third-party presidential campaign. Wallace supported further New Deal reforms and opposed the Cold War, but his campaign was taken over by the far-left and Wallace retired from politics in disgust.
Most prominent and constant among the positions of Cold War liberalism were the following:
In some ways, this resembled what in other countries was referred to as social democracy. However, American liberals never widely endorsed nationalization of industry like European social democrats, instead favoring regulation for public benefit.
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First Bank Of The United States
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William Birch & Son. Bank of the United States with a View of Third St. Philadelphia, from The City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, As it Appeared in the Year 1800. . . . Hand-colored engraving. Springland, Pennsylvania: William Birch and Son, 1800. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress
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Linking Jeffersonian Republicans To The French Revolution
In 1792, political pamphleteer William Cobbett settled in Philadelphia and began writing pro-English and anti-Republican articles under the pseudonym Peter Porcupine. Cobbett once described Thomas Jefferson as a deist, a Frenchman in politics and morality and a man as much qualified to be president as I am to be an Archbishop!
Stop the Wheels of Government, illustration in Peter Porcupineâs Political Censor or Monthly Review of the Most Interesting Political Occurrences Relative to the United States of America. Philadelphia: William Cobbett, April 1796. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress
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