Thursday, June 16, 2022

Why Do Democrats And Republicans Disagree

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Both Republicans And Democrats Cite Masks As A Negative Effect Of Covid

Patrick van KesselDennis Quinn

The COVID-19 outbreak has upended life across the United States and exposed growing divisions between supporters of the two major political parties. And when Americans are asked to describe in their own words how the outbreak has affected them negatively, no topic divides Democrats and Republicans more than the subject of masks, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of survey findings collected in late August and early September.

Overall, 14% of U.S. adults mentioned the word mask when asked how the pandemic has made their life difficult or challenging. That made mask the fourth most common term in these responses, behind family and work each of which was mentioned by 19% of the public and friend, mentioned by 14% of respondents.

For this analysis, we surveyed 9,220 U.S. adults between Aug. 31-Sept. 7, 2020. Everyone who completed the survey is a member of Pew Research Centers American Trends Panel , an online survey panel that is recruited through national, random sampling of residential addresses. This way nearly all U.S. adults have a chance of selection. The survey is weighted to be representative of the U.S. adult population by gender, race, ethnicity, partisan affiliation, education and other categories. Read more about the ATPs methodology.


To gain further insights into these differences, researchers examined each of the nearly 1,000 open-ended responses that mentioned the term mask.

Despite The State Of Our Politics Hope For America Is Rising And So Is Youths Faith In Their Fellow Americans

In the fall of 2017, only 31% of young Americans said they were about the future of America; 67% were fearful. Nearly four years later, we find that 56% have hope. While the hopefulness of young whites has increased 11 points, from 35% to 46% — the changes in attitudes among young people of color are striking. Whereas only 18% of young Blacks had hope in 2017, today 72% are hopeful . In 2017, 29% of Hispanics called themselves hopeful, today that number is 69% .


More Than Half Of Young Americans Are Going Through An Extended Period Of Feeling Down Depressed Or Hopeless In Recent Weeks; 28% Have Had Thoughts That They Would Be Better Off Dead Or Of Hurting Themself In Some Way

Fifty-one percent of young Americans say that at least several days in the last two weeks they have felt down, depressed, or hopeless–19% say they feel this way more than half of the time. In addition, 68% have little energy, 59% say they have trouble with sleep, 52% find little pleasure in doing things. 49% have a poor appetite or are over-eating, 48% cite trouble concentrating, 32% are moving so slowly, or are fidgety to the point that others notice — and 28% have had thoughts of self-harm

Among those most likely to experience bouts of severe depression triggering thoughts that they would be better off dead or hurting themself are young people of color , whites without a college experience , rural Americans , and young Americans not registered to vote .

In the last two weeks, 53% of college students have said that their mental health has been negatively impacted by school or work-related issues; overall 34% have been negatively impacted by the coronavirus, 29% self-image, 29% personal relationships, 28% social isolation, 25% economic concerns, 22% health concerns–and 21% politics .


History Of The Republican Party

The Republican Party came into existence just prior to the Civil War due to their long-time stance in favor of abolition of slavery. They were a small third-party who nominated John C. Freemont for President in 1856. In 1860 they became an established political party when their nominee Abraham Lincoln was elected as President of the United States. Lincolns Presidency throughout the war, including his policies to end slavery for good helped solidify the Republican Party as a major force in American politics. The elephant was chosen as their symbol in 1874 based on a cartoon in Harpers Weekly that depicted the new party as an elephant.

Famous Republican Vs Democratic Presidents

COVID PR pulse: Where Republicans & Democrats disagreeand ...

Republicans have controlled the White House for 28 of the last 43 years since Richard Nixon became president. Famous Democrat Presidents have been Franklin Roosevelt, who pioneered the New Deal in America and stood for 4 terms, John F. Kennedy, who presided over the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban missile crisis, and was assassinated in Office; Bill Clinton, who was impeached by the House of Representatives; and Nobel Peace Prize winners Barack Obama and Jimmy Carter.


Famous Republican Presidents include Abraham Lincoln, who abolished slavery; Teddy Roosevelt, known for the Panama Canal; Ronald Reagan, credited for ending the Cold War with ; and the two Bush family Presidents of recent times. Republican President Richard Nixon was forced to resign over the Watergate scandal.

To compare the two parties’ presidential candidates in the 2020 elections, see Donald Trump vs Joe Biden.

The Divide Between Political Parties Feels Big Fortunately Its Smaller Than We Think

Image adapted from: Ben Sweet/Unsplash


Political polarization in the United States was once defined by ideological disagreement. Now, this ideological division has been fused with an us versus them sectarianism that feels reminiscent of divisiveness and vitriol more commonly seen in war-torn countries than in healthy democracies. To illustrate the current state of polarization in the United States, consider the following: in the lead up to the most recent presidential election, the federal government arrested a militia that allegedly planned to kidnap Michigan governor Gretchen Whitmer, yard signs expressing support for both Democratic and Republican candidates were regularly stolen and vandalized, and businesses across the country boarded up their windows for fear of widespread post-election violence.

As social psychologists, we are interested in understanding how such a toxic form of polarization manifests in our everyday psychology, and how the mental models we hold can undermine social cohesion and democratic health. And as concerned citizens who are also scientists, we are also interested in identifying evidence-based solutions to overcome the division that defines American politics. Through a partnership between a research team at the University of Pennsylvania and the nonprofit organization Beyond Conflict, we work to translate research on political polarization into science-backed interventions to reduce conflict.

Why do these misperceptions matter?

Majority Say Climate Change Is Real


Americans who say climate change is real and agree with at least some methods of addressing it whatever their political affiliation have always been in the majority.

Belief in climate change has shifted over the past 20 years but overall has never dipped below 57% of all Americans, according to surveys by the Yale Program on Climate Change Communication. In 2019, it was 69%.

Whats changed is the context. When you look beneath the hood, concern about this issue has soared among Democrats, increased among independents but has stayed flat among Republicans, said Anthony Leiserowitz, who directs the Yale program. 

He attributes the strength of the hard-line dismissives in part to fossil fuel interests putting money into delaying carbon reduction policies for as long as possible. 

According to Yale survey data released Jan. 16, the proportion of Americans who are either dismissive or doubtful about climate change has decreased to 20%, down 5 percentage points since 2014.


The dismissives, people firmly convinced this is a hoax, are the smallest theyve ever been, Leiserowitz said. 

That could be good news for creating policies on climate change that the majority of Americans will support. Theres broad-based social and political consensus on at least one of the main issues around climate change, the transition to clean energy. Its true among Democrats, Republicans and independents, Leiserowitz said.

Arizona Republicans Enact Sweeping Changes To State’s Early Voting List

Earlier versions of SB 7 would also have required disabled voters to produce proof of their status, such as documents from the Social Security Administration or the Department of Veterans Affairs. But that provision was later cut. The original requirements would have been unfeasible for many disabled people and would have exposed counties and the state to expensive lawsuits, according to Lauren Gerken, public policy analyst at the Texas Council for Developmental Disabilities, a state agency.


What supporters say: It’s meant to cut down on fraud

SB 7 was introduced on March 11, titled the Election Integrity Protection Act of 2021. Its stated purpose is “to detect and punish fraud.” But the legislation’s backers have not been able to point to many specific examples of problems they want to fix.

In April, Hughes was asked to list the places where election fraud had occurred in Texas. Rather than echo former President Donald Trump’s false claims of widespread election fraud in the 2020 vote, he pointed to the previous midterm election.

“In my district over in East Texas, I have a county commissioner under felony indictment … over mail ballot fraud from the 2018 election cycle,” Hughes told Amarillo TV station ABC 7.

“That case in Gregg County involved 38 ballots” that were questioned, the station’s Morgan Duerden noted.


What critics say: There is no widespread fraud

What supporters say:It’s meant to inspire confidence in the voting process

Coronavirus Likely To Supercharge Election

Democrats said the state’s plan would disenfranchise some citizens by leaving them out of the primary; Republicans argued that states’ voter rolls are often inaccurate and that sending out ballots to everyone could lead to the ballots getting lost or winding up in the wrong hands opening up the prospect for fraud.

Voter rolls are often the focus of disputes for these reasons.

People die, move and move out of state and so authorities periodically need to delete names. How frequently that happens, and for what reasons, can become controversial and the kernel of legal and political warfare between the parties.

Likewise with voter identification documents.

In Texas, for example, the Republican-dominated state legislature deemed that handgun licenses were acceptable identification at the polls but student IDs, even those issued by the state’s own universities, were not.

Which Party Is Better For The Economy

Princeton University economists Alan Binder and Mark Watson argue the U.S. economy has grown faster when the president is a Democrat rather than a Republican. “The U.S. economy not only grows faster, according to real GDP and other measures, during Democratic versus Republican presidencies, it also produces more jobs, lowers the unemployment rate, generates higher corporate profits and investment, and turns in higher stock market returns,” they write.???

However, rather than chalking up the performance difference to how each party manages monetary or fiscal policy, Binder and Watson said Democratic presidencies had benefitted from “more benign oil shocks, superior performance, a more favorable international environment, and perhaps more optimistic consumer expectations about the near-term future.”??

History Of The Democratic Party

The party can trace its roots all the way back to Thomas Jefferson when they were known as Jeffersons Republicans and they strongly opposed the Federalist Party and their nationalist views. The Democrats adopted the donkey as their symbol due to Andrew Jackson who was publicly nicknamed jackass because of his popular position of let the people rule. The Democratic National Committee was officially created in 1848. During the civil war a rift grew within the party between those who supported slavery and those who opposed it. This deep division led to the creation of a new Democratic party, the one we now know today.

A Plurality Believe History Will Judge Trump As A The Worst President Ever; Less Than A Quarter Of Young Americans Want Trump To Play A Key Role In The Future Of Republican Politics; Young Republicans Are Divided

Thirty percent of young Americans believe that history will Donald Trump as the worst president ever. Overall, 26% give the 45th president positive marks , while 54% give Trump negative marks ; 11% believe he will go down as an average president.

Twenty-two percent of young Americans surveyed agree with the statement, I want Donald Trump to play a key role in the future of Republican politics, 58% disagreed, and 19% neither agreed nor disagreed. Among young Republicans, 56% agreed while 22% disagreed, and 21% were neutral. Only 61% of those who voted for Trump in the 2020 general indicated their desire for him to remain active in the GOP.

If they had to , 42% of young Republicans consider themselves supporters of the Republican party, and not Donald Trump. A quarter indicated they are Trump supporters first, 24% said they support both.

We’re Less Far Apart Politically Than We Think Why Can’t We All Get Along

Why Cant Republicans Disagree with Trump on Anything ...

    Partisans on both sides of the aisle significantly the extent of extremism in the opposing party. The more partisan the thinker, the more distorted the other side appears. And when we see the opposition as extremists, we them. Our tribal thinking prepares us for battle.

    What’s the solution? More information? More political engagement? More ?

    Surely more information leads to better judgment. But social scientists at the international initiative More in Common find that having more information from the news media is associated with a less accurate understanding of political opponents. Part of the problem appears to be the political biases of media sources themselves. Of all the various news media examined, only the traditional TV networks, ABC, NBC, and CBS, are associated with a better understanding of political views.

    What about more political engagement and education? Here again, we’re out of luck. Those who are most accurate in their understanding of each side’s political views are the politically disengaged. They are three times more accurate than the most engaged and passionate partisans. Even education is handicapping at least for those on the left. The accuracy of Republicans views of Democrats is not affected by higher education, but liberals with postgraduate degrees are the least accurate about their ideological opponents. They are also the most afflicted with affective polarization, hostile feelings toward people of the opposing political party.

    Here Are The Texas Gop’s Reasons For Voting Restrictions And Why Critics Disagree

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    “This is a preventative measure for us,” state Rep. Travis Clardy says of the Republican-backed Senate Bill 7, which sought to tighten voting rules, citing a need to prevent fraud. Here, opponents of the bill hold a rally last month at the Texas Capitol in Austin.

    Texas Republicans say their controversial move to tighten voter restrictions is sorely needed to prevent fraud. But the few examples of fraud they cite have been out of proportion to the sweeping changes included in their legislation, which seeks to reshape the way many Texans exercise their fundamental democratic right.

    Senate Bill 7 is now effectively dead after Democrats walked out of the Texas Capitol in a quorum-busting maneuver that prevented a final vote on the bill. But Republicans plan to call a special session of the state Legislature to revive their push for new controls.

    “Election integrity legislation will pass during the special session. Period,” House Speaker Dade Phelan said late Monday.

    The Republican election proposals we’ve seen so far are expansive. The failed bill sought to impose new limits on the vote-by-mail system and to restrict how and when people can vote in person. It also would have increased existing criminal penalties and created new criminal offenses around voting.

    Regulating The Economy Republican Style

    The Republican Party is generally considered business-friendly and in favor of limited government regulation of the economy. This means favoring policies that put business interests ahead of environmental concerns, labor union interests, healthcare benefits and retirement benefits. Given this more pro-business bias, Republicans tend to receive support from business owners and capitalists, as opposed to support from labor.

    Whats Dividing Republicans And Democrats On Healthcare Reform

    Since the Affordable Care Act became law in 2010, Republicans have been determined to destroy it while Democrats insist its the countrys best chance at reforming healthcare to make it affordable and accessible. Both parties want reform, but the approach has been fundamentally different and for good reason. There are basic, core reasons why conservatives and liberals cant get on the same page when it comes to healthcare reform. Lets take a moment to dig into the details and figure out what is exactly keeping Republicans and Democrats from being able to find a middle ground on healthcare reform, so far.

    Democrats want the federal government to legislate and administer healthcare while Republicans want private industry to helm the healthcare system with as minimal input from the federal government as possible.

    Of course, there are always exceptions within each party because people arent one-dimensional. Moderates on both sides, for instance, would seek compromise wherever possible. But in general, these core ideological differences make healthcare reform particularly challenging, especially when one party holds more power. In 2010, Democrats passed the ACA without a single rightwing vote.

    The Institute Of Politics At Harvard University

    April 23, 2021

    A national poll of Americas 18-to-29 year olds released today by the Institute of Politics at Harvard Kennedy School shows that despite the state of our politics, hope for America among young people is rising dramatically, especially among people of color. As more young Americans are likely to be politically engaged than they were a decade ago, they overwhelmingly approve of the job President Biden is doing, favor progressive policies, and have faith in their fellow Americans.

    In the March 9-22 survey of 2,513 young Americans, the Harvard Youth Poll looked at views regarding the Biden administrations first 100 days, the future of the Republican Party, mental health, and the impacts of social media.

    As millennials and Gen Z become the largest voting bloc, their values and participation provide hope for the future and also a sense of urgency that our country must address the pressing issues that concern them, said Mark Gearan 78, Director, Institute of Politics at Harvard Kennedy School.

    What we see in this years Harvard Youth Poll is how great the power of politics really is, said John Della Volpe, the Director of Polling at the Harvard Kennedy School Institute of Politics. With a new president and the temperature of politics turned down after the election, young Americans are more hopeful, more politically active, and they have more faith in their fellow Americans.

    Top findings of this survey, the 41st in a biannual series, include the following:

    Young Americans Are Significantly More Likely To Be Politically Engaged Than They Were A Decade Ago; A Sharp Increase In Progressive Political Values Marked Since 2016

    Less than one year after Barack Obamas election, 24% of young Americans considered themselves to be politically active . Twelve years later, we find the share of politically active Americans increased by half and now 36% are politically active. The most politically active among this cohort are young Blacks . 

    Over the last five years, on a host of issues ranging from health care, to climate, immigration, poverty, and affirmative action–young Americans are increasingly more likely to favor government intervention. For example, we found:

    • A 19-point increase in agreement with the statement Qualified minorities should be given special preferences in hiring and education .
    • An 18-point increase in agreement with the statement Government should do more to curb change, even at the expense of economic growth .
    • A 16-point increase since 2016 in agreement with The government should spend more to reduce .
    • A 16-point increase in Basic health insurance is a right for all people, and if someone has no means of paying for it, the government should provide it .
    • An 8-point increase in agreement with Recent into this country has done more good than harm .

    Actually Republicans Do Believe In Climate Change

    Dr. Van Boven and Dr. Sherman are social psychologists.

    • July 28, 2018

    It is widely believed that most Republicans are skeptical about human-caused climate change. But is this belief correct?

    In 2014 and 2016, we conducted two national surveys of more than 2,000 respondents on the issue of climate change. We found that most Republicans agreed that climate change is happening, threatens humans and is caused by human activity and that reducing carbon emissions would mitigate the problem.

    To be sure, Democrats agreed more strongly than Republicans did that climate change is a concerning reality. And among climate skeptics there were more Republicans than Democrats. Nevertheless, most Republicans were in basic agreement with most Democrats and independents on this issue.

    This raises a question: If Democrats and Republicans agree about climate change, why do they disagree about climate policy?

    As we and our colleague Phillip Ehret argue this month in the journal Perspectives on Psychological Science, our research suggests the problem is not so much that Republicans are skeptical about climate change, but that Republicans are skeptical of Democrats and that Democrats are skeptical of Republicans. This tribalism leads to political fights over differences between the parties that either do not exist or are vastly exaggerated.

    Red States And Blue States List

    Due to the TV coverage during some of the presidential elections in the past, the color Red has become associated with the Republicans and Blue is associated with the Democrats.

    The Democratic Party, once dominant in the Southeastern United States, is now strongest in the Northeast , Great Lakes Region, as well as along the Pacific Coast , including Hawaii. The Democrats are also strongest in major . Recently, Democratic candidates have been faring better in some southern states, such as Virginia, Arkansas, and , and in the Rocky Mountain states, especially Colorado, Montana, Nevada, and New Mexico.

    1980, geographically the Republican “base” is strongest in the South and West, and weakest in the Northeast and the Pacific Coast. The Republican Party’s strongest focus of political influence lies in the Great Plains states, particularly Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, and in the western states of Idaho, Wyoming, and Utah.

    Political Party Platforms And The Death Penalty

    As a Democrat, who is the most respectable Republican, and ...

    Reasserts 2016 platforms call for the abolition of the death penalty.

    Protecting Communities and Building Trust by Reforming Our Criminal Justice SystemOur criminal justice system is failing to keep communities safeand failing to deliver justice. America is the land of the free, and yet more of our people are behind bars, per capita, than anywhere else in the world. Democrats believe we need to overhaul the criminal justice system from top to bottom. Sentencing decisions should be based on the facts of each case, including the severity of the offense and individuals circumstances. Democrats support allowing judges to determine appropriate sentences, which is why we will fight to repeal federal mandatory minimums, incentivize states to do the same, and make all sentencing reductions retroactive so judges can reconsider past cases where their hands were tied. We believe it is long past time to end the federal sentencing disparity between crack and powdered cocaine, which has contributed to the disproportionate imprisonment of people of color. And Democrats continue to support abolishing the death penalty.

    The Republican National Committees Executive Committee voted on June 10, 2020, to adopt the same platform the party used in 2016.

    For relevant excerpts of the , see below.

    Regulating The Economy Democratic Style

    The Democratic Party is generally considered more willing to intervene in the economy, subscribing to the belief that government power is needed to regulate businesses that ignore social interests in the pursuit of earning a for shareholders. This intervention can come in the form of regulation or taxation to support social programs. Opponents often describe the Democratic approach to governing as “tax and spend.”

    Huge Differences Between Democratic And Republican Platforms

    Gallery: Monday night at the DNC 2016 convention in Philadelphia

    This post originally ran on July 28, 2016. For the latest on the 2018 Midterm Election, check out our voters’ guide or the on the Menendez vs Hugin race.

     — It’s hard to say you don’t have a clear choice this presidential election year.

    The  and show views of world 180 degrees apart.

    The Democrats’ statement of principles encompassed many of Vermont Sen. Bernie Sanders’ views, giving him a victory even as he lost the presidential nomination to former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. The Republican platform shifted to the right of its nominee, businessman Donald Trump, amid concern that he wasn’t conservative enough.

    At 55 pages, the Democratic document is 11 pages shorter than the GOP platform and mentioned Trump 29 times compared with just one of Clinton in the Republican document.

    Here are 10 huge differences in the party platforms:

    1. ABORTION

    Democrats:“We believe unequivocally, like the majority of Americans, that every woman should have access to quality reproductive health care services, including safe and legal abortion.”

    Republicans: Abortion should be illegal in all cases and the Constitution should ve amended to ban the procedure.

    “We assert the sanctity of human life and affirm that the unborn child has a fundamental right to life which cannot be infringed,” the platform said.

    The GOP argued that supporting the constitutional right to abortion was the “extreme” position.

    2. SAME-SEX MARRIAGE

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