Soviet Espionage In 1950s America
Soviet spies in America had been active for more than two decades, of course, just as Americansthemselves conducted intelligence operations in most major foreign countries. What the Sovietsgained through their American agents, however, was substantial. One new study concludes thatcontrary to the claims of liberals for many years, physicist Robert Oppenheimer, the father of theatomic bomb, helped write American Communist Party literature at the University of Californiaand may have been a party member.37 Another recent study of Soviet agents in America, based onnewly released KGB documents and coauthored by a former Soviet agent, revealed that Russianintelligence agencies received substantial and sometimes critical information concerning U.S. government policies on highly sensitive subjects, itsconfidential negotiating strategies, and secret weapons development, including essential processesinvolved in building the atomic bomb.38 The agents skills ranged from those of practicedprofessionals to bumbling amateurs, but, significantly, their level of penetration into the U.S.government is no longer in doubt.
Grant And The Era Of Good Stealings
A reluctant politician, Ulysses S. Grant was as unimpressive in person as was Johnson. Sad eyed, ofaverage height, and possessing a low musical and penetrating voice, Grant punctuated his speechby frequently stroking his slight beard with his left hand. Courteous and capable of effusivelaughter, Grant in portraits nevertheless looks as if he were attending a bullfight or a funeral. Fullof personal contradictions, he puzzled even his best friends, including cartoonist Thomas Nast, whocontributed mightily to the 1868 campaign. Two things elected me, Grant later said, the swordof Sheridan and the pencil of Thomas Nast. Early in his life Grant and Longstreet had been close,and after Fort Sumter, he came to rely heavily on Sherman. Unlike Lincoln, who never lacked confidence around men of better education or status, Grant, according to Hamilton Fish, later hissecretary of state, was uncomfortable in the presence of highly literate or well-traveled men.66Possessed of a detailed and organized memory, Grant could tell spellbinding stories, and later wrotea military memoir considered the finest since Caesars.67
When the Republicans lost the midterm election in 1874, it indicated support for Reconstructionwas waning. Political realities of the 1870s combined to push Republicans further away from theirRadical Reconstruction goals of union, emancipation, and equality, until by 1876 three of these hadbeen reduced to two: union and emancipation. Equality had been discarded.
Tindall And Shi America : 607
56. John Quincy Adams, The Diary of John Quincy Adams, 17941845, Allan Nevins, ed. , 57374, February 27 and 28, 1845.
57. Billington and Ridge, Westward Expansion, 232 Richard R. Stenberg, The Failure of PolksMexican War Intrigue of 1845, Pacific Historical Review, 1, 1935, 3968 Ramon Ruiz, TheMexican War: Was it Manifest Destiny? , 6869 Justin H. Smith, The War With Mexico, 2 vols. Samuel Flagg Bemis, ADiplomatic History of the United States .
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Total War And Unconditional Surrender
Fittingly, Sherman began his new offensive the day after the election. I can make Georgia howl,he prophesied.121 With Chattanooga and Atlanta both lost, the South lacked any major rail links tothe western part of the Confederacy, causing Lee to lose what little mobility advantage he hadshown in previous campaigns. My aim then, Sherman later wrote, was to whip the rebels, tohumble their pride, to follow them to their inmost recesses, and make them fear and dread us.122
On February seventeenth, Sherman entered Columbia, South Carolina, whereupon fires sweptthrough the city, delighting many Unionists who hoped for the total destruction of this hotbed ofrebellion. Most evidence points to Shermans vengeful soldiers as the arsonists. The following day,the Stars and Stripes was hoisted above Fort Sumter. Marching north, Sherman further compressedthe tiny operating area left to Lee and Johnston. This was perfectly in sync with Grants broadstrategy of operating all the armies together on all fronts. Every army had orders to engage, astrategy to which Lincoln agreed: Those not skinning can hold a leg.128
Of course, when possible, slaves aimed to escape to Northern lines. By 1863, Virginia alonecounted nearly 38,000 fugitives out of a population of 346,000, despite the presence of armedtroops all around them.133 Philosophically, the Confederacy placed more emphasis on recovering ablack runaway than in apprehending a white deserter from the Army of Northern Virginia.
Chapter 19 The Age Of Upheaval 196074
1. Howard Brick, Age of Contradiction: American Thought and Culture in the 1960s .
2. John A. Andrew III, The Other Side of the Sixties: The Young Americans for Freedom and theRise of Conservative Politics .
3. Christopher Matthews, Kennedy and Nixon: The Rivalry That Shaped Postwar America . 4. Brian J. Gaines, Popular Myths About Popular Vote-Electoral College Splits, PS: PoliticalScience and Politics, March 2001, 7175.
5. Jeffrey Hart, When the Going Was Good!: American Life in the Fifties , 156.
6. Thomas C. Reeves, A Question of Character: A Life of John F. Kennedy , chap. 3, passim.
7. Reeves, Question of Character, Forum, paperback ed. , 68.
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Economy Begins To Slow Y2k Scare Proves Groundless
George Herbert Walker Bush came from a political family that many associated with privilege,even though his own money had come from hard work in the oil business. His father, PrescottBush, had been a U.S. senator, and although the younger Bush had not held as many electiveoffices as a Walter Mondale or a Richard Nixon, he had been in and around Washington for longperiods in his life. A fighter pilot who had seen combat in World War II, he returned to civilian lifeto make a fortune in petroleum, so he knew how the free market worked. He had served asambassador, congressman, and, after the Nixon debacles, CIA director, restoring some of theconfidence in that agency.
The DLC leadership took some very un-Democratic stands on certain issues, such as favoring freetrade and a willingness to examine minor welfare reform. Members like Tennessee senator Al Goreand Arkansas governor Bill Clinton claimed to embrace the new high-tech economy. MichaelDukakis also seemed enthusiastic about the high-tech economy, running on the much-ballyhooedMassachusetts miracle, his states rebirth of jobs in the computer industry. When From and otherDLC founders designed the centrist strategy, they envisioned it as providing a vehicle to thepresidency for one manAl Gore.
The French Revolution And Neutrality
The French Revolution of 1789 precipitated a huge crisis in American foreign policy. It was aparadoxical development, for on the surface Americans should have been pleased that their ownRevolution had spawned a similar republican movement across the Atlantic, just as Europeanintellectuals pointed with pride to Americas war for independence as validation of Enlightenmentconcepts. Many Americans, most notably Jefferson and his Anti-Federalist supporters, as well asthe rabble-rouser Tom Paine, enthusiastically supported Frances ouster of the corrupt regime ofLouis XVI. French republican leaders echoed Jeffersons words in the Declaration when they calledfor liberté, égalité, fraternité and issued their own Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen.Unfortunately, Frances revolutionary dreams went largely unfulfilled, in part because of importantdifferences in the presumption of power and the state in their revolutionary declarations. Thetyranny of King Louis was soon replaced by the equally oppressive dictatorship of the mob andRobespierre. Blood ran in the streets of Paris and heads literally rolled, beginning with Louis ownin 1793. A new wave of violence and warfare swept across Europe, pitting France against everymonarchy on the continent, exactly as John Adams had predicted in a letter to his wife.42
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Berkin Making America 459
137. Jay Winik, April 1865: The Month That Saved the Union Daniel Sutherland, Guerrilla Warfare, Democracy, and the Fate of the Confederacy, Journal ofSouthern History, 68, May 2002, 25992, quotation on 292. 138. Hummel, Emancipating Slaves, 291.
139. Second Inaugural Speech of Abraham Lincoln, March 4, 1865, in Williams, ed., SelectedWritings and Speeches of Abraham Lincoln, 25960.
Usa Today Five Weeks Of History
12. Florida Voter Errors Cost Gore the Election, USA Today, May 1113, 2001.
13. Maureen Dowd, Hillarys Stocking Stuffer, New York Times, February 21, 2001.
14. Barbara Olson, The Final Days .
15. See George Lardner Jr., Clinton Shipped Furniture a Year Ago, Washington Post, February10, 2001 Hey, Wait a Minute, The Hotline , February 12, 2001.
16. John McLaughlin, John McLaughlins One on One, January 26, 2001.
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Perkins Monroe Doctrine 3031
34. William M. Wiecek, Old Times There Are Not Forgotten: The Distinctiveness of the SouthernConstitutional Experience, in Kermit L. Hall and James W. Ely, eds., An Uncertain Tradition:Constitutionalism and the History of the South ,15997, quotation on 164. 35. Robert P. Forbes, Slavery and the Meaning of America, 18191833, Ph.D. Diss., YaleUniversity, 1994.
From Chickamauga To Charleston
Gettysburg and Vicksburg marked a congruence of the war effort, a deadly double blow to thehopes of the Confederacy, capping a string of battlefield failures that met the Confederates in 1863.By that time, Ulysses Grant commanded all the military operations in the West, and he promptlysent Sherman to open up the road to Atlantaand the Deep South. Then, on March 10, 1864,Lincoln appointed Grant as supreme commander over all Union armies, and Grant, in turn, handedcontrol of the western war over to Sherman.
Born in Lancaster, Ohio, in 1820, Sherman had been unloaded on relatives by his widowed mother.His foster father, Thomas Ewing, proved supportive, sending Sherman to West Point, and theyoung red-haired soldier eventually married Ewings daughter. The Mexican War took him toCalifornia, where he later resigned and ran a bankpoorly. By the time the Civil War broke out, hehad found some measure of success running the Louisiana State Seminary and Military Academylater known as Louisiana State Universitybut resigned to serve the Union after Louisianasannouncement of secession. He wrote the secretary of war requesting a colonelcy rather than agenerals position, and wanted a three-year appointment, wishing to avoid the impression he was apolitical general.
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Attacking Communism With A Two
Most American policy analysts agreed that the United States, even with the full support of theEuropean allies, was not militarily capable of pushing the Soviets out of their occupied areas.Therefore, the United States needed another strategy of resistance. Truman had kept his eye onBritish efforts to support the Greek government against communist guerrillas since March 1946, but by early 1947, England was running out of money. Her own economy had suffered, the empirewas in disarray, and the war had simply sapped the will of the British citizenry in such matters.
In February 1947, Truman, George Marshall ,George Kennan , and Dean Acheson met with leaders from the newly elected Republican-dominated Congress, whose support would beessential. In the past they had resisted overseas involvement. Senator Arthur Vandenberg assuredTruman that the Republicans would support him, but that the president would have to take his casedirectly to the American people too. Consequently, Truman laid out the Truman Doctrine,establishing as American policy the support of free peoples who are resisting attemptedsubjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure. The cold war had begun.
Gillon And Matson American Experience 1270
25. Gerald Posner, Citizen Perot: His Life and Times .
26. George Stephanopoulos, All Too Human: A Political Education ,82.
27. Rhodes Cook, Arkansan Travels Well Nationally as Campaign Heads for Test, CongressionalQuarterly Weekly Report, January 11, 1992.
28. David Maraniss, First in His Class: A Biography of Bill Clinton .
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Steigerwald The Sixties 169
139. Claudia Goldin and Lawrence F. Katz, On the Pill: Changing the Course of WomensEducation, Milken Institute Review, Second Quarter, 2001, 1221.
140. Beverly Gordon, American Denim: Blue Jeans and Their Multiple Layers of Meaning, inGeorge O. Carney, ed., Fast Food, Stock Cars, and Rock n Roll: Place and Space in AmericanPop Culture , 77117.
141. David Dalton, Finally, the Shocking Truth about Woodstock Can Be Told, or Kill It Before ItClones Itself, The Gadfly, August 1999, taken from The Gadfly online, http://gadfly.org/ 199908/toc. asp. Other comments and quotations are from the authors conversations with Dalton.
142. Dalton, Finally, the Shocking Truth, authors conversations with Dalton.
145. Rubin and Dorn quoted in Lee and Schlain, Acid Dreams, 257.
The Glorious Revolution In England And America 168889
The epic story of the seventeenth-century founding and development of colonial America ended ona crucial note, with American reaction to Englands Glorious Revolution. The story of abuses ofpower by Stuart kings was well known to Americans. Massachusetts Puritans, after all, had fled theregime of Charles I, leaving brethren in England to wage the English Civil War. The return of achastened Charles II from French exile in 1660 did not settle the conflict between Parliament andthe king.
When James II ascended to the throne in 1685, he decided to single-handedly reorganize colonialadministration. First, he violated constitutionalism and sanctity of contract by recalling the chartersof all of the New England and Middle coloniesMassachusetts Bay, Pennsylvania, New York, andNew Jerseyand the compact colonies Plymouth, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. In 1686 hecreated the so-called Dominion of New England, a centralized political state that his appointee,Governor Edmund Andros, was to rule from Boston, its capital city. Jamess plan for a Dominionof New England was a disaster from the start. Upon arrival, Andros dismissed the coloniallegislatures, forbade town meetings, and announced he was taking personal command of the villagemilitias. In reality, he did no such thing, never leaving the city limits of Boston.
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Davidson Et Al Nation Of Nations 760
59. Frederick Allen, Secret Formula , 2866.
60. Jack High and Clayton A. Coppin, Wiley and the Whiskey Industry: Strategic Behavior in thePassage of the Pure Food Act, Business History Review, 62, Summer 1988, 286309.
61. James H. Timberlake, Prohibition and the Progressive Movement, 19001920 Norman H. Clark, The Dry Years: Prohibition and SocialChange in Washington John C. Burnham, NewPerspectives on the Prohibition Experiment of the 1920s, Journal of Social History, 2, 1968, 5168, quotation on 51.
William J Duiker Ho Chi Minh
33. Mark Haefele, John F. Kennedy, USIA and World Opinion, Diplomatic History, 25, Winter2001.
34. Reporting Vietnam, Part One: American Journalism, 19591969 , 56.
35. John P. Roche, The Demise of Liberal Internationalism, National Review, May 3, 1985, 2644.
37. John Newman, JFK and Vietnam David Kaiser, AmericanTragedy: Kennedy, Johnson and the Origins of the Vietnam War . 38. Lawrence S. Wittner, Cold War America from Hiroshima to Watergate , 226227.
We Are All Keynesians Now
Nixon came into office hoping to restore the pomp and circumstance of the White House, outfittingthe marine guards with European-style ostentatious uniforms. Patriotic, convinced of the rightnessof his position, Nixon unfortunately lacked the charisma that Kennedy, Jackson, or the Rooseveltshad exhibited. His taste never seemed quite right: the new uniforms he had ordered for the WhiteHouse guards only led to complaints that he was trying to create an imperial presidency. Havingstruggled through a poor childhood, Nixon never adapted to the modest wealth and trappingsassociated with the presidency. He never looked comfortable in anything less than a coat and tie.Yet he was a remarkable man.
Similar measures passed by the 196874 congresses included the Occupational Health and SafetyAct , the ToxicSubstances Control Act, and a series of clean air and pure food and drug acts. By 1976, businessesestimated that it cost $63 billion per year to comply with this legislationmoney that ultimatelydid not come from the evil corporations, but from consumers who paidhigher and higher prices. At the same time, productivity fell. The Coal Mine Health and Safety Actreduced coal production by 32 percent. Good, shouted the environmentalists, but it madeAmerica more dependent on foreign fuels. Worse, unemployment soared in states where federalpollution mandates forced vast new expenditures on scrubbers and other pollution-control devices.
Atack And Passell A New Economic View 33739
46. Leon Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery , 8.
47. Atack and Passell, A New Economic View, 34145 Robert A. Margo and Richard H. Steckel,The Heights of American Slaves: New Evidence on Slave Nutrition and Health, Social ScienceHistory, 6, 1982, 51638. 48. Herbert Guttman, The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom .
49. Kenneth Stampp, The Peculiar Institution Gavin Wright, ThePolitical Economy of the Cotton South Robert Evans Jr., TheEconomics of American Negro Slavery, in National Bureau for Economic Research, Aspects ofLabor Economics Yasukichi Yasuba, TheProfitability and Viability of Plantation Slavery in the United States, in Robert Fogel and StanleyEngerman, The Reinterpretation of American Economic History , 36268.
50. Fred Bateman, James Foust, and Thomas Weiss, Profitability in Southern Manufacturing:Estimates for 1860, Explorations in Economic History, 12, 1975, 21131.
51. Mark Thornton, Slavery, Profitability, and the Market Process, Review of AustrianEconomics, 7 , 2127, quotation on 23.
52. Thomas D. Morris, Southern Slavery and the Law, 16191860 Andrew Fede, People Without Rights: An Interpretation of the Law ofSlavery in the U.S. South .
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Schweikart Entrepreneurial Adventure 79
20. Ibid., 102 Atack and Passell, New Economic View of American History, 150 Carter Goodrich,Government Promotion of American Canals and Railroads, 18001890 and his Canals and American Economic Development , and his The Government and the Economy, 17831861 Robert Shaw, Erie Water West: A History of the Erie Canal,17921854 Ronald W. Filante, A Note on theEconomic Viability of the Erie Canal, 182560, Business History Review, 48, Spring 1974, 95102
21. B. R. Burg, DeWitt Clinton, in Schweikart, ed., Encyclopedia of American Business Historyand Biography: Banking and Finance to 1913, 12330.
22. Atack and Passell, New American View of American History, 15556 Roger Ransom, SocialReturns from Public Transport Investment: A Case Study of the Ohio Canal, Journal of PoliticalEconomy, 78, September/October 1970, 104164, and his Interregional Canals and EconomicSpecialization in the Antebellum United States, Explorations in Economic History, 5, Fall 1967,1235.
23. James Mak and Gary M. Walton, Steamboats and the Great Productivity Surge in RiverTransportation, Journal of Economic History, 32, 1972, 61940, and their Western RiverTransportation: The Era of Early Internal Development, 18101860 Jeremy Atack, et al., The Profitability of Steamboating on WesternRivers: 1850, Business History Review, 49, Autumn 1975, 35054 Erik Haites and James Mak, Ohio and Mississippi River Transportation, 18101860, Explorations in Economic History, 8,1970, 15380.